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Version: 2.0.x

Extending Quill


Infix is a very flexible mechanism to use non-supported features without having to use plain queries in the target language. It allows the insertion of arbitrary strings within quotations.

For instance, quill doesn't support the FOR UPDATE SQL feature. It can still be used through infix and implicit classes:

implicit final class ForUpdate[T](private val q: Query[T]) extends AnyVal {
def forUpdate = quote(sql"$q FOR UPDATE".as[Query[T]])

val a = quote {
query[Person].filter(p => p.age < 18).forUpdate
// SELECT, p.age FROM person p WHERE p.age < 18 FOR UPDATE

The forUpdate quotation can be reused for multiple queries.

Queries that contain infix will generally not be flattened since it is not assumed that the contents of the infix are a pure function.

Since SQL is typically less performant when there are many nested queries, be careful with the use of infix in queries that have multiple map+filter clauses.

final case class Data(id: Int)
final case class DataAndRandom(id: Int, value: Int)

// This should be alright:
val q = quote {
query[Data].map(e => DataAndRandom(, sql"RAND()".as[Int])).filter(r => r.value <= 10)
// SELECT, e.value FROM (SELECT RAND() AS value, AS id FROM Data e) AS e WHERE e.value <= 10

// This might not be:
val q = quote {
.map(e => DataAndRandom(, sql"SOME_UDF(${})".as[Int]))
.filter(r => r.value <= 10)
.map(e => DataAndRandom(, sql"SOME_OTHER_UDF(${e.value})".as[Int]))
.filter(r => r.value <= 100)
// Produces too many layers of nesting!
// SELECT, e.value FROM (
// SELECT SOME_OTHER_UDF(e.value) AS value, AS id FROM (
// SELECT SOME_UDF( AS value, AS id FROM Data e
// ) AS e WHERE e.value <= 10
// ) AS e WHERE e.value <= 100

If you are sure that the content of your infix is a pure function, you can use the pure method in order to indicate to Quill that the infix clause can be copied in the query. This gives Quill much more leeway to flatten your query, possibly improving performance.

val q = quote {
.map(e => DataAndRandom(, sql"SOME_UDF(${})"[Int]))
.filter(r => r.value <= 10)
.map(e => DataAndRandom(, sql"SOME_OTHER_UDF(${e.value})"[Int]))
.filter(r => r.value <= 100)
// Copying SOME_UDF and SOME_OTHER_UDF allows the query to be completely flattened.

Infixes With Conditions


Use sql"...".asCondition to express an infix that represents a conditional expression.


When synthesizing queries for databases which do not have proper boolean-type support (e.g. SQL Server, Oracle etc...) boolean infix clauses inside projections must become values. Typically this requires a CASE WHERE ... END.

Take the following example:

final case class Node(name: String, isUp: Boolean, uptime:Long)
final case class Status(name: String, allowed: Boolean)
val allowedStatus:Boolean = getState

quote {
query[Node].map(n => Status(, n.isUp == lift(allowedStatus)))
// This is invalid in most databases:
// SELECT, n.isUp = ?, uptime FROM Node n
// It will be converted to this:
// SELECT, CASE WHEN (n.isUp = ?) THEN 1 ELSE 0, uptime FROM Node n

However, in certain cases, infix clauses that express conditionals should actually represent boolean expressions for example:

final case class Node(name: String, isUp: Boolean)
val maxUptime:Boolean = getState

quote {
query[Node].filter(n => sql"${n.uptime} > ${lift(maxUptime)}".as[Boolean])
// Should be this:
// SELECT, n.isUp, n.uptime WHERE n.uptime > ?
// However since sql"...".as[Boolean] is treated as a Boolean Value (as opposed to an expression) it will be converted to this:
// SELECT, n.isUp, n.uptime WHERE 1 == n.uptime > ?

In order to avoid this problem, use sql"...".asCondition so that Quill understands that the boolean is an expression:

quote {
query[Node].filter(n => sql"${n.uptime} > ${lift(maxUptime)}".asCondition)
run(q) // SELECT, n.isUp, n.uptime WHERE n.uptime > ?

Dynamic infix

Infix supports runtime string values through the #$ prefix. Example:

def test(functionName: String) =[Person].map(p => sql"#$functionName(${})".as[Int]))

Implicit Extensions

You can use implicit extensions in quill in several ways.

NOTE. In ProtoQuill extensions must be written using the Scala 3 extension syntax and implicit class extensions are not supported. Please see Extensions in ProtoQuill/Scala3 below for more info.

Standard quoted extension:
implicit final class Ext(private val q: Query[Person]) extends AnyVal {
def olderThan(age: Int) = quote {
query[Person].filter(p => p.age > lift(age))
// SELECT, p.age FROM Person p WHERE p.age > ?
Higher-order quoted extension:
implicit final class Ext(private val q: Query[Person]) extends AnyVal {
def olderThan = quote {
(age: Int) =>
query[Person].filter(p => p.age > lift(age))
// SELECT, p.age FROM Person p WHERE p.age > 44

// SELECT, p.age FROM Person p WHERE p.age > ?

The advantage of this approach is that you can choose to either lift or use a constant.

Scalar quoted extension:

Just as Query can be extended, scalar values can be similarly extended.

implicit final class Ext(private val i: Int) extends AnyVal {
def between = quote {
(a: Int, b:Int) =>
i > a && i < b
run(query[Person].filter(p => p.age.between(33, 44)))
// SELECT, p.age FROM Person p WHERE p.age > 33 AND p.age < 44
Extensions in ProtoQuill/Scala3:

In ProtoQuill, the implicit class pattern for extensions is not supported. Please switch to using Scala 3 extension methods combined with inline definitions to achieve the same functionality.

extension (q: Query[Person]) {
inline def olderThan(inline age: Int) = quote {
query[Person].filter(p => p.age > lift(age))
// SELECT, p.age FROM Person p WHERE p.age > ?

Raw SQL queries

You can also use infix to port raw SQL queries to Quill and map it to regular Scala tuples.

val rawQuery = quote {
(id: Int) => sql"""SELECT id, name FROM my_entity WHERE id = $id""".as[Query[(Int, String)]]
//SELECT x._1, x._2 FROM (SELECT id AS "_1", name AS "_2" FROM my_entity WHERE id = 1) x

Note that in this case the result query is nested. It's required since Quill is not aware of a query tree and cannot safely unnest it. This is different from the example above because infix starts with the query sql"$q... where its tree is already compiled

Database functions

A custom database function can also be used through infix:

val myFunction = quote {
(i: Int) => sql"MY_FUNCTION($i)".as[Int]

val q = quote {
query[Person].map(p => myFunction(p.age))
// SELECT MY_FUNCTION(p.age) FROM Person p

Comparison operators

The easiest way to use comparison operators with dates is to import them from the extras module.

final case class Person(name: String, bornOn: java.util.Date)

val ctx = new SqlMirrorContext(PostgresDialect, Literal)
import ctx._
import extras._ /* importing the > operator among other things */

run(query[Person].filter(p => p.bornOn > lift(myDate)))

Note that in ProtoQuill you should import io.getquill.extras._ since they are now global.

Using Ordered

You can also define an implicit-class that converts your Date/Numeric type to a Ordered[YourType] which will also give it >, < etc... comparison operators.

implicit final class LocalDateTimeOps(val value: MyCustomNumber) extends Ordered[MyCustomNumber] {
def compare(that: MyCustomNumber): Int = value.compareTo(that)

Note that Quill will not actually use this compare method, that is strictly for your own data needs. You can technically define it as def compare(that: MyCustomNumber): Int = ??? because Quill will never actually invoke this function. It uses the LocalDateTimeOps merely as a sort of marker to know that the >, < operators etc... can be transpiled to SQL.

Note that although in ProtoQuill implicit-class based approaches are generally not supported, this particular pattern will work as well.

Using Implicit Classes

Finally, can implement comparison operators (or any other kinds of operators) by defining implicit conversion and using infix.

implicit final class DateQuotes(private val left: MyCustomDate) extends AnyVal {
def >(right: MyCustomDate) = quote(sql"$left > $right".as[Boolean])
def <(right: MyCustomDate) = quote(sql"$left < $right".as[Boolean])

batch with infix

implicit final class OnDuplicateKeyIgnore[T](private val q: Insert[T]) extends AnyVal {
def ignoreDuplicate = quote(sql"$q ON DUPLICATE KEY UPDATE id=id".as[Insert[T]])
Person(1, "Test1", 30),
Person(2, "Test2", 31)
)).foreach(row => query[Person].insertValue(row).ignoreDuplicate)

Custom encoding

Quill uses Encoders to encode query inputs and Decoders to read values returned by queries. The library provides a few built-in encodings and two mechanisms to define custom encodings: mapped encoding and raw encoding.

Custom Encoders

If the correspondent database type is already supported, use encoder.contramap and to define encoders/decoders for the custom type. In this example, String is already supported by Quill and the UUID encoding from/to String is defined through a custom encoding:

import java.util.UUID
import ctx._

implicit val encodeUUID: Encoder[UUID] =
implicitly[Encoder[String]].contramap((id: UUID) => id.toString)
implicit val decodeUUID: Decoder[UUID] =
implicitly[Decoder[String]].map((idStr: String) => UUID.fromString(idStr))

You can also MappedEncoding to define instances that convert to/from the target type.

import java.util.UUID
import ctx._ // - Import MappedEncoding from the context
// import io.getquill.MappedEncoding - (or import MappedEncoding directly)

implicit val encodeUUID = MappedEncoding[UUID, String](_.toString)
implicit val decodeUUID = MappedEncoding[String, UUID](UUID.fromString(_))

Note that can it be also used to provide mapping for element types of collection (SQL Arrays or Cassandra Collections).

Raw Encoding

If the database type is not supported by Quill, it is possible to provide "raw" encoders and decoders:

trait UUIDEncodingExample {
val jdbcContext: PostgresJdbcContext[Literal] // your context should go here

import jdbcContext._

implicit val uuidDecoder: Decoder[UUID] =
decoder((index, row) =>
UUID.fromString(row.getObject(index).toString)) // database-specific implementation

implicit val uuidEncoder: Encoder[UUID] =
encoder(java.sql.Types.OTHER, (index, value, row) =>
row.setObject(index, value, java.sql.Types.OTHER)) // database-specific implementation

// Only for postgres
implicit def arrayUUIDEncoder[Col <: Seq[UUID]]: Encoder[Col] = arrayRawEncoder[UUID, Col]("uuid")
implicit def arrayUUIDDecoder[Col <: Seq[UUID]](implicit bf: CBF[UUID, Col]): Decoder[Col] =
arrayRawDecoder[UUID, Col]


Quill automatically encodes AnyVals (value classes):

final case class UserId(value: Int) extends AnyVal
final case class User(id: UserId, name: String)

val q = quote {
for {
u <- query[User] if == lift(UserId(1))
} yield u
// SELECT, FROM User u WHERE ( = 1)

Table/Column Customizations

The meta DSL allows the user to customize how Quill handles column/table naming and behavior.

Changing Table and Column Names

You can change how Quill queries handle table and column names for a record case class.

def example = {
implicit val personSchemaMeta = schemaMeta[Person]("people", -> "person_id")[Person])
// SELECT x.person_id,, x.age FROM people x

By default, quill expands query[Person] to querySchema[Person]("Person"). It's possible to customize this behavior using an implicit instance of SchemaMeta:

Excluding Columns from Insert

You can exclude columns (e.g. Auto-Generated ones) from insertion in q.insertValue(...) by using an InsertMeta.

implicit val personInsertMeta = insertMeta[Person]([Person].insertValue(lift(Person(-1, "John", 22))))
// INSERT INTO Person (name,age) VALUES (?, ?)

Note that the parameter of insertMeta is called exclude, but it isn't possible to use named parameters for macro invocations.

Excluding Columns from Update

You can exclude columns (e.g. Auto-Generated ones) from updates in q.insertValue(...) by using an UpdateMeta.

implicit val personUpdateMeta = updateMeta[Person]([Person].filter( == 1).updateValue(lift(Person(1, "John", 22))))
// UPDATE Person SET name = ?, age = ? WHERE id = 1

Note that the parameter of updateMeta is called exclude, but it isn't possible to use named parameters for macro invocations.

Mapped Records

The QueryMeta customizes the expansion of query types and extraction of the final value. For instance, it's possible to use this feature to normalize values before reading them from the database:

implicit val personQueryMeta =
(q: Query[Person]) => => (, sql"CONVERT(${} USING utf8)".as[String], p.age))
) {
case (id, name, age) =>
Person(id, name, age)

The query meta definition is open and allows the user to even join values from other tables before reading the final value. This kind of usage is not encouraged.