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Version: 2.x

ZIO 2.x Interoperation with Cats 2.x


libraryDependencies += "dev.zio" %% "zio-interop-cats" % ""

ZIO Cats Effect instances

ZIO integrates with Typelevel libraries by providing an instance of ConcurrentEffect for IO as required, for instance, by fs2, doobie and http4s. Actually, I lied a little bit, it is not possible to implement ConcurrentEffect for any error type since ConcurrentEffect extends MonadError of Throwable.

For convenience we have defined an alias as follow:

  type Task[A] = IO[Throwable, A]

Therefore, we provide an instance of ConcurrentEffect[Task].


In order to get a ConcurrentEffect[Task] or ConcurrentEffect[RIO[R, *]] we need an implicit Runtime[R] in scope. The easiest way to get it is using ZIO.runtime:

import cats.effect._
import zio._
import zio.interop.catz._

def getCE = { { implicit r: Runtime[Any] =>
val F: ConcurrentEffect[Task] = implicitly

Task.concurrentEffectWith method can automate this pattern:

import cats.effect._
import zio._
import zio.interop.catz._

def fork = {
Task.concurrentEffectWith { implicit CE =>
CE.start(Task(println("Started task")))


In order to get a cats.effect.Timer[Task] instance we need an extra import:

import zio.interop.catz.implicits._

The reason it is not provided by the default "interop" import is that it makes testing programs that require timing capabilities hard therefore an extra import wherever needed makes reasoning about it much easier. It is not a good idea to use this import as it causes limitations in testing since it uses the live implementation of zio.Clock.Service. If you want to retain testability, do the following instead:

import cats.effect._
import zio._
import zio.interop.catz._

ZIO.runtime[Clock].flatMap { implicit rts =>
val clock: Timer[Task] = rts.environment.get.toTimer
val ce: ConcurrentEffect[Task] = implicitly

ce.race(clock.sleep(1.second), clock.sleep(1.second))


If you only need instances for cats-core typeclasses, not cats-effect import zio.interop.catz.core._:

import zio.interop.catz.core._

Note that this library only has an Optional dependency on cats-effect – if you or your libraries don't depend on it, this library will not add it to the classpath.


The following example shows how to use ZIO with Doobie (a library for JDBC access) and FS2 (a streaming library), which both rely on Cats Effect instances:

import doobie.imports._
import fs2.Stream
import zio.Task
import zio.interop.catz._

val xa: Transactor[Task] = Transactor.fromDriverManager[Task](...)

def loadUsers: Stream[Task, User] =
sql"""SELECT * FROM users""".query[User].stream.transact(xa)

val allUsers: List[User] = unsafeRun(loadUsers.compile.toList)