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Version: 2.0.x


To build a description of a command:

val command = Command("cat", "file.txt") will return a handle to the process as ZIO[Blocking, CommandError, Process]. Alternatively, instead of flat-mapping and calling methods on Process, there are convenience methods on Command itself for some common operations:

Transforming output

List of lines

To obtain the output as a list of lines with the type ZIO[Blocking, CommandError, Chunk[String]]


Stream of lines

To obtain the output as a stream of lines with the type ZStream[Blocking, CommandError, String]


This is particularly useful when dealing with large files and so on as to not use an unbounded amount of memory.


If you don't need a structured type, you can return the entire output as a plain string:


This defaults to UTF-8. To use a different encoding, specify the charset:


Exit code

When you don't care about the output (or there is no output), you can return just the exit code.


Note that Command#exitCode will return the exit code in the ZIO's success channel whether it's 0 or not. If you want non-zero exit codes to be considered an error, use Command#successfulExitCode instead. This will return a CommandError.NonZeroErrorCode in ZIO's error channel when the exit code is not 0:

for {
exitCode <- Command("java", "--non-existent-flag").successfulExitCode
// Won't reach this 2nd command since the previous command failed with `CommandError.NonZeroErrorCode`:
exitCode2 <- Command("java", "--non-existent-flag").successfulExitCode
} yield ()

Kill a process

You can kill a process by calling interrupt on the running Fiber:

for {
fiber <- Command("long-running-process").exitCode.forkDaemon
_ <- ZIO.sleep(5.seconds)
_ <- fiber.interrupt
_ <- fiber.join
} yield ()

If you use Command#run then you receive a handle to underlying Process immediately, which means ZIO's built-in interruption model no longer applies. In this case, if you want to kill a process before it's done terminating, you can use kill (the Unix SIGTERM equivalent) or killForcibly (the Unix SIGKILL equivalent):

for {
process <- Command("long-running-process").run
_ <- ZIO.sleep(5.seconds)
_ <- process.kill
} yield ()

Stream of bytes

If you need lower-level access to the output's stream of bytes, you can access them directly like so:

Access stdout and stderr separately

There are times when you need to process the output of stderr as well.

for {
process <- Command("./some-process").run
stdout <- process.stdout.string
stderr <- process.stderr.string
// ...
} yield ()

Error handling

Errors are represented as CommandError in the error channel instead of IOException. Since CommandError is an ADT, you can pattern match on it and handle specific cases rather than trying to parse the guts of IOException.getMessage yourself.

For example, if you want to fallback to running a different program if it doesn't exist on the host machine, you can match on CommandError.ProgramNotFound:

Command("some-program-that-may-not-exit").string.catchSome {
case CommandError.ProgramNotFound(_) => Command("fallback-program").string