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Version: 2.0.x

Creating Data Sources

To construct a ZQuery that executes a request, you first need to create a DataSource. A DataSource[R, A] requires an environment R and is capable of executing requests of type A. It is defined in terms of:

  • an identifier that uniquely identifies the data source
  • an effectual function runAll from a Chunk[Chunk[A]] of requests to a CompletedRequestMap of requests and results

The outer Chunk represents batches of requests that must be performed sequentially. The inner Chunk represents a batch of requests that can be performed in parallel. This allows data sources to introspect on all the requests being executed and optimize the query.

Let's consider getUserNameById from the previous example.

We need to define a corresponding request type that extends Request for a given response type:

case class GetUserName(id: Int) extends Request[Throwable, String]

Now let's build the corresponding DataSource. We will create a Batched data source that executes requests that can be performed in parallel in batches but does not further optimize batches of requests that must be performed sequentially. We need to implement the following functions:

lazy val UserDataSource = new DataSource.Batched[Any, GetUserName] {
val identifier: String = ???
def run(requests: Chunk[GetUserName])(implicit trace: Trace): ZIO[Any, Nothing, CompletedRequestMap] = ???

We will use "UserDataSource" as our identifier. This name should not be reused for other data sources.

val identifier: String = "UserDataSource"

We will define two different behaviors depending on whether we receive a single request or multiple requests at once. For each request, we need to insert into the result map a value of type Exit (fail for an error and succeed for a success).

def run(requests: Chunk[GetUserName]): ZIO[Any, Nothing, CompletedRequestMap] =
requests.toList match {
case request :: Nil =>
// get user by ID e.g. SELECT name FROM users WHERE id = $id
val result: Task[String] = ???, _))
case batch =>
// get multiple users at once e.g. SELECT id, name FROM users WHERE id IN ($ids)
val result: Task[List[(Int, String)]] = ???
CompletedRequestMap.failCause(requests, _),
CompletedRequestMap.fromIterableWith(_)(kv => GetUserName(kv._1), kv => Exit.succeed(kv._2))

Now to build a ZQuery, we can use ZQuery.fromRequest and just pass the request and the data source:

def getUserNameById(id: Int): ZQuery[Any, Throwable, String] =

To run a ZQuery, simply use ZQuery#run which will return a ZIO[R, E, A].