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Version: ZIO 2.x

CountdownLatch

A synchronization aid that allows one or more fibers to wait until a set of operations being performed in other fibers completes.

A CountDownLatch is initialized with a given count. The await method block until the current count reaches zero due to invocations of the countDown method, after which all waiting fibers are released and any subsequent invocations of await return immediately. This is a one-shot phenomenon -- the count cannot be reset. If you need a version that resets the count, consider using a CyclicBarrier.

A CountDownLatch is a versatile synchronization tool and can be used for a number of purposes. A CountDownLatch initialized with a count of one serves as a simple on/off latch, or gate: all fibers invoking await wait at the gate until it is opened by a fiber invoking countDown. A CountDownLatchinitialized to N can be used to make one fiber wait until N fibers have completed some action, or some action has been completed N times.

A useful property of a CountDownLatch is that it doesn't require that fibers calling countDown wait for the count to reach zero before proceeding, it simply prevents any fiber from proceeding past an awaituntil all fibers could pass.

Creation

To create a CountDownLatch we can simply use the make constructor. It takes an initial number, for the countdown counter:

object CountdownLatch {
def make(n: Int): IO[Option[Nothing], CountdownLatch]
}

Operations

There are two important operations defined on CountdownLatch:

class CountdownLatch {
val countDown: UIO[Unit]
val await: UIO[Unit]
}

The countDown operation decrements the count of the latch, releasing all waiting fibers if the count reaches zero, and the await operation causes the current fiber to wait until the latch has counted down to zero.

Examples

Simple on/off Latch

We can simply create an on/off latch using Promise. In the following example, we don't want to start the consume process before the first 50 number appears in the queue. As it requires a simple on/of latch we can implement that using the Promise data type:

import zio._

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {

def consume(queue: Queue[Int]): UIO[Nothing] =
queue.take
.flatMap(i => ZIO.debug(s"consumed: $i"))
.forever

def produce(queue: Queue[Int], latch: Promise[Nothing, Unit]): UIO[Nothing] =
(Random
.nextIntBounded(100)
.tap(i => queue.offer(i))
.tap(i => ZIO.when(i == 50)(latch.succeed(()))) *> ZIO.sleep(500.millis)).forever

def run =
for {
latch <- Promise.make[Nothing, Unit]
queue <- Queue.unbounded[Int]
_ <- produce(queue, latch) <&> (latch.await *> consume(queue))
} yield ()
}

Alternatively, we can have an on/off latch using CountDownLatch with an initial count of one:

import zio._
import zio.concurrent._

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {

def consume(queue: Queue[Int]): UIO[Nothing] =
queue.take
.flatMap(i => ZIO.debug(s"consumed: $i"))
.forever

def produce(queue: Queue[Int], latch: CountdownLatch): UIO[Nothing] =
(Random
.nextIntBounded(100)
.tap(i => queue.offer(i))
.tap(i => ZIO.when(i == 50)(latch.countDown)) *> ZIO.sleep(500.millis)).forever

def run =
for {
latch <- CountdownLatch.make(1)
queue <- Queue.unbounded[Int]
_ <- produce(queue, latch) <&> (latch.await *> consume(queue))
} yield ()
}

Advanced Latches

We can solve more advanced problems by increasing the initial count of CountdownLatch.

Assume we had several producers concurrently in the previous example and the consumer was required to wait until at least five 50 numbers were added to the queue before they were allowed to consume. We can do this as follows:

import zio._
import zio.concurrent._

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {

def consume(queue: Queue[Int]): UIO[Nothing] =
queue.take
.flatMap(i => ZIO.debug(s"consumed: $i"))
.forever

def produce(queue: Queue[Int], latch: CountdownLatch): UIO[Nothing] =
(Random
.nextIntBounded(100)
.tap(i => queue.offer(i))
.tap(i => ZIO.when(i == 50)(latch.countDown)) *> ZIO.sleep(500.millis)).forever

def run =
for {
latch <- CountdownLatch.make(5)
queue <- Queue.unbounded[Int]
p = ZIO.collectAllParDiscard(ZIO.replicate(10)(produce(queue, latch)))
c = latch.await *> consume(queue)
_ <- p <&> c
} yield ()
}

In this example, 10 producers are producing numbers concurrently, and the consumer is waiting for its condition to be fulfilled to start the consumption process.