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Version: ZIO 2.x

ZEnvironment

A ZEnvironment[R] is a built-in type-level map for the ZIO data type which is responsible for maintaining the environment of a ZIO effect. The ZIO data type uses this map to maintain all the environmental services and their implementations.

For example, assume we have written a ZEnvironment containing all built-in services as below:

import zio._

val environment: ZEnvironment[Console & Clock & Random & System] =
ZEnvironment[Console, Clock, Random, System](
Console.ConsoleLive,
Clock.ClockLive,
Random.RandomLive,
System.SystemLive
)

This map contains all built-in services and their corresponding implementations. If we evaluate the ZEnvironment#toString method, we can see the underlying type-level map something like this.

ZEnvironment(
Map(
Console -> (zio.Console$ConsoleLive$@76a3e297, 0),
Clock -> (zio.Clock$ClockLive$@4d3167f4, 1),
Random -> (RandomScala(scala.util.Random$@4eb7f003), 2),
System -> (zio.System$SystemLive$@eafc191, 3)
)
)

From a ZIO environment point of view, we can think of ZIO as the following function:

type ZIO[R, E, A] = ZEnvironment[R] => Either[E, A]
or
type ZIO[R, E, A] = ZEnvironment[R] => IO[E, A]

For example, the ZIO[Foo & Bar, Throwable, String] can be thought of as a function from ZEnvironment[Foo & Bar] to Either[Throwable, String]:

Note:

The ZEnvironment is useful for manually constructing and combining the ZIO environment. So, in most cases, we do not require working directly with this data type. So you can skip reading this page if you are not an advanced user.

We can eliminate the environment of ZIO[R, E, A] by providing ZEnvironment[R] to that effect.

Also, we can access the whole environment using ZIO.environment:

import zio._  
import java.io.IOException

case class AppConfig(poolSize: Int)

val myApp: ZIO[AppConfig, IOException, Unit] =
ZIO.environment[AppConfig].flatMap { env =>
val config = env.get[AppConfig]
Console.printLine(s"Application started with config: $config")
}

val eliminated: IO[IOException, Unit] =
myApp.provideEnvironment(
ZEnvironment(AppConfig(poolSize = 10))
)

Note:

In most cases, we do not require using ZIO.environment to access the whole environment or the ZIO#provideEnvironment to provide effect dependencies. Therefore, most of the time, we use ZIO.service* and other ZIO#provide* methods to access a specific service from the environment or provide services to a ZIO effect.

Creation

To create an empty ZIO environment:

import zio._

val empty: ZEnvironment[Any] = ZEnvironment.empty

To create a ZIO environment from a simple value:

import zio._

case class AppConfig(host: String, port: Int)
val config: ZEnvironment[AppConfig] = ZEnvironment(AppConfig("localhost", 8080))

Operations

To combine two or multiple environment we can use union or ++ operator:

import zio._

case class AppConfig(host: String, port: Int)

val app: ZEnvironment[AppConfig] =
ZEnvironment.empty ++ ZEnvironment(AppConfig("localhost", 8080))

To add a service to an environment:

import zio._

case class AppConfig(host: String, port: Int)

val app: ZEnvironment[AppConfig] =
ZEnvironment.empty.add(AppConfig("localhost", 8080))

To retrieve a service from the environment, we use get method:

import zio._

case class AppConfig(host: String, port: Int)

val app: ZEnvironment[AppConfig] =
ZEnvironment.empty.add(AppConfig("localhost", 8080))

val appConfig: AppConfig = app.get[AppConfig]

Providing Multiple Instance of the Same Interface

We can express an effect's dependency on multiple services of the type A which are keyed by type K with Map[K, A]. For example, the ZIO[Map[String, Database], Throwable, Unit] is an effect that depends on multiple Database versions.

To access the specified service corresponding to a specific key, we can use the ZIO.serviceAt[Service](key) constructor. For example, to access a Database service which is specified by the "inmemory" key, we can write:

val database: URIO[Map[String, Database], Option[Database]] =
ZIO.serviceAt[Database]("inmemory")

A service can be updated at the specified key using the ZIO#updateServiceAt operator.

Multiple Config Example

Let's see how we can create a layer comprising multiple instances of AppConfig:

import zio._

case class AppConfig(host: String, port: Int)

object AppConfig {
val layer: ULayer[Map[String, AppConfig]] =
ZLayer.succeedEnvironment(
ZEnvironment(
Map(
"prod" -> AppConfig("production.myapp", 80),
"dev" -> AppConfig("development.myapp", 8080)
)
)
)
}

And here is the application which uses different AppConfig from the ZIO environment based on the value of the APP_ENV environment variable:

import zio._

object MultipleConfigExample extends ZIOAppDefault {

val myApp: ZIO[Map[String, AppConfig], String, Unit] = for {
env <- System.env("APP_ENV")
.flatMap(x => ZIO.fromOption(x))
.orElseFail("The environment variable APP_ENV cannot be found.")
config <- ZIO.serviceAt[AppConfig](env)
.flatMap(x => ZIO.fromOption(x))
.orElseFail(s"The $env config cannot be found in the ZIO environment")
_ <- ZIO.logInfo(s"Application started with: $config")
} yield ()

def run =
myApp.provide(AppConfig.layer)

}

Multiple Database Example

Here is an example of providing multiple instances of the Database service to the ZIO environment:

import zio._

import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets

trait Database {
def add(key: String, value: Array[Byte]): ZIO[Any, Throwable, Unit]
}

object Database {
val layer: ULayer[Map[String, Database]] = {
ZLayer.succeedEnvironment(
ZEnvironment(
Map(
"persistent" -> PersistentDatabase.apply(),
"inmemory" -> InmemoryDatabase.apply()
)
)
)
}
}

case class InmemoryDatabase() extends Database {
override def add(key: String, value: Array[Byte]): ZIO[Any, Throwable, Unit] =
ZIO.unit <* ZIO.logInfo(s"new $key added to the inmemory database")
}

case class PersistentDatabase() extends Database {
override def add(key: String, value: Array[Byte]): ZIO[Any, Throwable, Unit] =
ZIO.unit <* ZIO.logInfo(s"new $key added to the persistent database")
}

object MultipleDatabaseExample extends ZIOAppDefault {
val myApp = for {
inmemory <- ZIO.serviceAt[Database]("inmemory")
.flatMap(x => ZIO.fromOption[Database](x))
.orElseFail("failed to find an in-memory database in the ZIO environment")
persistent <- ZIO.serviceAt[Database]("persistent")
.flatMap(x => ZIO.fromOption[Database](x))
.orElseFail("failed to find an persistent database in the ZIO environment")
_ <- inmemory.add("key1", "value1".getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8))
_ <- persistent.add("key2", "value2".getBytes(StandardCharsets.UTF_8))
} yield ()

def run = myApp.provideLayer(Database.layer)
}