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Version: ZIO 2.x

ZIO 2.x Migration Guide

In this guide we want to introduce the migration process to ZIO 2.x. So if you have a project written in ZIO 1.x and want to migrate that to ZIO 2.x, this article is for you.

Automatic Migration

Before you migrate your own codebase, confirm that all of your ZIO-related dependencies have been migrated to ZIO 2.x with our ZIO Ecosystem Tool.

ZIO uses the Scalafix for automatic migration. Scalafix is a code migration tool that takes a rewrite rule and reads the source code, converting deprecated features to newer ones, and then writing the result back to the source code.

ZIO has a migration rule named Zio2Upgrade which migrates a ZIO 1.x code base to ZIO 2.x. This migration rule covers most of the changes. Therefore, to migrate a ZIO project to 2.x, we prefer to apply the Zio2Upgrade rule to the existing code. After that, we can go to the source code and fix the remaining compilation issues:

  1. First, we should ensure that all of our direct and transitive dependencies have released their compatible versions with ZIO 2.x. Note that we shouldn't update our dependencies to the 2.x compatible versions, before running scalafix.

  2. Next, we need to install the Scalafix SBT Plugin, by adding the following line into project/plugins.sbt file:

    // project/plugins.sbt
    addSbtPlugin("ch.epfl.scala" % "sbt-scalafix" % "<version>")
  3. We are ready to apply the migration rule:

    sbt "scalafixEnable; scalafixAll github:zio/zio/Zio2Upgrade?sha=series/2.x" 
  4. After running scalafix, it's time to upgrade ZIO dependencies. If we are using one of the following dependencies, we need to bump them into the 2.x version:

    libraryDependencies += "dev.zio" %% "zio"         % "2.0.0"
    libraryDependencies += "dev.zio" %% "zio-streams" % "2.0.0"
    libraryDependencies += "dev.zio" %% "zio-test" % "2.0.0"

    Other than ZIO, we should upgrade all other (official or community) ZIO libraries we are using in our build.sbt file.

  5. Now, we have performed most of the migration. Finally, we should fix the remaining compilation errors with the help of the remaining sections in this article.

Guidelines for Library Authors

As a contributor to ZIO ecosystem libraries, we also should cover these guidelines:

  1. We should add implicit trace parameter to all our codebase, this prevents the guts of our library from messing up the user's execution trace.

Let's see an example of that in the ZIO source code:

trait ZIO[-R, +E, +A] {
- def map[B](f: A => B): ZIO[R, E, B] =
flatMap(a => ZIO.succeedNow(f(a)))
+ def map[B](f: A => B)(implicit trace: Trace): ZIO[R, E, B] =
flatMap(a => ZIO.succeedNow(f(a)))
}

Assume we have written the FooLibrary as below:

import zio._

object FooLibrary {
def foo = bar.flatMap(x => ZIO.succeed(x * 2)) // line 4
private def bar = baz.flatMap(x => ZIO.succeed(x * x)) // line 5
private def baz = ZIO.fail("Oh uh!").as(5) // line 6
}

Without implicit trace parameter, the user of our library will get so many unrelated stack trace messages:

import zio._

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
def run = FooLibrary.foo
}

To avoid messing up our user's execution trace, we should add implicit trace parameters to our methods:

import zio._

object FooLibrary {
def foo(implicit trace: Trace) = bar.flatMap(x => ZIO.succeed(x * 2))
private def bar(implicit trace: Trace) = baz.flatMap(x => ZIO.succeed(x * x))
private def baz(implicit trace: Trace) = ZIO.fail("Oh uh!").as(5)
}

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
def run = FooLibrary.foo // line 10
}
  1. All parameters to operators returning an effect should be by-name. Also, we should be sure to capture any parameters that are referenced more than once as values suspended in a ZIO constructor such as suspendSucceed to prevent double evaluation.

    The overall pattern in implementing such methods will be:

    - def foreachParN[A](n: Int)(a: Iterable[A]) = {
    ... // The function body
    - }
    + def foreachParN[A](n0: => Int)(a0: => Iterable[A]) =
    + ZIO.suspendSucceed {
    + val n = n0
    + val a = a0
    ... // The function body
    + }

    As a result, the code will be robust to double evaluation as well as to side-effects embedded within parameters.

  2. We should update names to match ZIO 2.0 naming conventions.

  3. ZIO 2.0 introduced new structured concurrently operators which helps us to change the regional parallelism settings of our application. So if applicable, we should use these operators instead of the old parallel operators.

  4. If we are exposing unsafe operators in one of our interfaces we should use the Unsafe data type to indicate this. By convention we define these operators in an UnsafeAPI trait in our interface that can be accessed using as unsafe operator.

def MyInterface {
- def unsafeDoSomething(): Unit
+ def unsafe: UnsafeAPI
+
+ trait UnsafeAPI {
+ def doSomething()(implicit unsafe: Unsafe): Unit
+ }
}

Deletion of Type Alias Companion Objects

In ZIO 1.x, using the type aliases as objects created another way to do things and potentially led to confusion about whether these were the same or somehow different with little benefit.

In ZIO 2.x, we removed companion objects for type aliases. We still can use type aliases such as UIO[Int], but we couldn't do UIO.succeed(1) anymore:

- val effect: UIO[Int] = UIO.succeed(1)
+ val effect: UIO[Int] = ZIO.succeedNow(1)

// another examp:
- val stream: UStream[Int] = UStream.succeed(1)
+ val stream: UStream[Int] = ZStream.succeed(1)

The migration script will automatically convert all the usages of type aliases to the corresponding objects.

Deletion of Has Data Type

The Has data type, which was used for combining services, was removed. Therefore, we no longer need to wrap services in the Has data type.

For example, in ZIO 1.x, the following layer denotes this layer requires Logging, Random, Database and produce the UserRepo:

val userRepo: ZLayer[Has[Logging] with Has[Random] with Has[Database], Throwable, Has[UserRepo]] = ???

In ZIO 2.x, the Has has been removed and simplified for better ergonomics:

val userRepo: ZLayer[Logging with Random with Database, Throwable, UserRepo] = ???

Also in ZIO 2.x instead of the Has data type, a type-level map called ZEnvironment has been built into ZIO. Let's see how this changes the way we can provide a service to the environment.

Using the following code snippet, we demonstrate how we used to access and provide instances of Config service to the application environment using ZIO 1.x:

// ZIO 1.x
import zio._

case class Config(url: String, port: Int)

object ConfigExample extends zio.App {

val app: ZIO[Has[console.Console.Service] with Has[Config], Nothing, Unit] = for {
config <- ZIO.service[Config]
_ <- console.putStrLn(s"application config: $config").orDie
} yield ()
override def run(args: List[String]): URIO[zio.ZEnv, ExitCode] = {

app.provideSome[Has[console.Console.Service]](_ ++ Has(Config("localhost", 8080))).exitCode
}
}

To migrate this snippet to ZIO 2.x, we need to remove all the Has service wrappers, and finally, we will use the ZIO#provideSomeEnvironment method to append the Config instance to the ZEnvironment:

// ZIO 2.x
import zio._

case class Config(url: String, port: Int)

object ConfigExample extends ZIOAppDefault {
val app: ZIO[Config, Nothing, Unit] = for {
config <- ZIO.service[Config]
_ <- Console.printLine(s"application config: $config").orDie
} yield ()

def run =
app.provideEnvironment(ZEnvironment(Config("localhost", 8080)))
}

Note that in ZIO 2.x, default services (e.g Console) are eliminated from the environment.

ZIO

Removed Methods

Arrow Combinators — (+++, |||, onSecond, onFirst, second, first, onRight, onLeft, andThen, >>>, compose, <<<, identity, swap, join)

In ZIO 2.0, all arrow combinators are removed, and we need to use alternatives like doing monadic for-comprehension style flatMap with combinators like provide, zip, and so on.

ZIO 2.0 Naming Conventions

In ZIO 2.0, the name of constructors and operators becomes more ergonomic and simple. They reflect more about their purpose rather than just using idiomatic jargon of category theory or functional terms in functional programming with Haskell.

Here are some of the most important changes:

  • Multiple ways of doing the same thing are removed — For example:

    • Both ZIO.succeed and ZIO.effectTotal do the same thing. So in ZIO 2.0 we just have one version of these constructors which is ZIO.succeed.
    • The bind operator >>= is removed. So we just have one way to flatMap which is the flatMap method. Therefore, the >>= method doesn't surprise the non-Haskellers.
    • The ZIO#get method was essentially a more constrained version of ZIO#some. So the get method is deprecated.
  • ZIO.attempt instead of ZIO.effect — In ZIO 2.0 all ZIO constructors like ZIO.effect* that create a ZIO from a side effect are deprecated and renamed to the ZIO.attempt* version. For example, when we are reading from a file, it's more meaning full to say we are attempting to read from a file instead of saying we have an effect of reading from a file.

  • ZIO instead of the M suffix — In effectful operations, the M suffix is renamed to the ZIO suffix. In ZIO 1.x, the M suffix in an effectful operation means that the operation works with monad in a monadic context. This naming convention is the legacy of Haskell jargon. In ZIO 2.x, all these suffixes are renamed to the ZIO. For example, the ifM operator is renamed to ifZIO.

  • Discard instead of the underscore _ suffix — The underscore suffix is another legacy naming convention from Haskell's world. In ZIO 1.x, the underscore suffix means we are going to discard the result. The underscore version works exactly like the one without the underscore, but it discards the result and returns Unit in the ZIO context. For example, the collectAll_ operator renamed to collectAllDiscard.

  • as, to, into prefixes — The ZIO#to is renamed to the ZIO#intoPromise. So now we have three categories of conversion:

    1. as — The ZIO#as method and its variants like ZIO#asSome, ZIO#asSomeError and ZIO#asService are used when transforming the A inside of a ZIO, generally as shortcuts for map(aToFoo(_)).
    2. to — The ZIO#to method and its variants like ZIO#toFuture are used when the ZIO is transformed into something else other than the ZIO data-type.
    3. into — All into* methods, accept secondary data-type, modify it with the result of the current effect (e.g. ZIO#intoPromise, ZStream#intoHub, and ZStream#intoQueue)
ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
ZIO#>>=ZIO#flatMap
ZIO#bimapZIO#mapBoth
ZIO#mapEffectZIO#mapAttempt
ZIO#filterOrElse_ZIO#filterOrElse
ZIO#foldCauseMZIO#foldCauseZIO
ZIO#foldMZIO#foldZIO
ZIO#foldTraceMZIO#foldTraceZIO
ZIO#getZIO#some
ZIO#optionalZIO#unoption
ZIO#someOrElseMZIO#someOrElseZIO
ZIO.forkAll_ZIO.forkAllDiscard
ZIO#forkInternalZIO#fork
ZIO#forkOnZIO#onExecutionContext(ec).fork
ZIO.fromFiberMZIO.fromFiberZIO
ZIO.requireZIO.someOrFail
ZIO#onZIO#onExecutionContext
ZIO#rejectMZIO#rejectZIO
ZIO#runZIO#exit
ZIO#timeoutHaltZIO#timeoutFailCause
ZIO#toZIO#intoPromise
ZIO.accessZIO.environmentWith
ZIO.accessMZIO.environmentWithZIO
ZIO.fromFunctionZIO.environmentWith
ZIO.fromFunctionMZIO.environmentWithZIO
ZIO.servicesZIO.service
ZIO.bracketZIO.acquireReleaseWith
ZIO.bracketExitZIO.acquireReleaseExitWith
ZIO.bracketAutoZIO.acquireReleaseWithAuto
ZIO#bracketZIO#acquireReleaseWith
ZIO#bracket_ZIO#acquireRelease
ZIO#bracketExitZIO#acquireReleaseExitWith
ZIO#bracketExitZIO#acquireReleaseExitWith
ZIO#bracketOnErrorZIO#acquireReleaseOnErrorWith
ZIO.collectAll_ZIO.collectAllDiscard
ZIO.collectAllPar_ZIO.collectAllParDiscard
ZIO.collectAllParN_ZIO.collectAllParNDiscard
ZIO#collectMZIO#collectZIO
ZIO.effectZIO.attempt
ZIO.effectAsyncZIO.async
ZIO.effectAsyncInterruptZIO.asyncInterrupt
ZIO.effectAsyncMZIO.asyncZIO
ZIO.effectAsyncMaybeZIO.asyncMaybe
ZIO.effectBlockingZIO.attemptBlocking
ZIO.effectBlockingCancelableZIO.attemptBlockingCancelable
ZIO.effectBlockingIOZIO.attemptBlockingIO
ZIO.effectBlockingInterruptZIO.attemptBlockingInterrupt
ZIO.effectSuspendZIO.suspend
ZIO.effectSuspendTotalZIO.suspendSucceed
ZIO.effectTotalZIO.succeed
ZIO.foreach_ZIO.foreachDiscard
ZIO.foreachPar_ZIO.foreachParDiscard
ZIO.foreachParN_ZIO.foreachParNDiscard
ZIO#replicateMZIO#replicateZIO
ZIO#replicateM_ZIO#replicateZIODiscard
ZIO.haltZIO.failCause
ZIO.haltWithZIO.failCauseWith
ZIO.ifMZIO.ifZIO
ZIO.loop_ZIO.loopDiscard
ZIO.whenCaseMZIO.whenCaseZIO
ZIO.whenMZIO.whenZIO
ZIO.unlessMZIO.unlessZIO
ZIO#unlessMZIO#unlessZIO
ZIO#whenMZIO#whenZIO
ZIO#repeatUntilMZIO#repeatUntilZIO
ZIO#repeatWhileMZIO#repeatWhileZIO
ZIO#retryUntilMZIO#retryUntilZIO
ZIO#retryWhileMZIO#retryWhileZIO
ZIO.replicateMZIO.replicateZIO
ZIO.replicateM_ZIO.replicateZIODiscard
ZIO.validate_ZIO.validateDiscard
ZIO.validatePar_ZIO.validateParDiscard
ZIO.tapCauseZIO.tapErrorCause

Lazy Evaluation of Parameters

In ZIO 2.x, we changed the signature of those functions that return effects to use by-name parameters. And we also encourage library authors to do the same for any functions that return effects.

Our motivation for this change was a common mistake among new users of ZIO, which they accidentally embed raw effects inside the function they pass to ZIO constructors and operators. This mistake may produce some unwanted behaviors.

Let's see an example of this anti-pattern in ZIO 1.x:

ZIO.bracket({
val random = scala.util.Random.nextInt()
ZIO.succeed(random)
})(_ => ZIO.unit)(x => console.putStrLn(x.toString)).repeatN(2)

The newbie user expects that this program prints 3 different random numbers, while the output would be something as follows:

1085597917
1085597917
1085597917

This is because the user incorrectly introduced a raw effect into the acquire parameter of bracket operation. As the acquire is by-value parameter, the value passed to the function evaluated eagerly, only once:

def bracket[R, E, A](acquire: ZIO[R, E, A]): ZIO.BracketAcquire[R, E, A]

If we make the acquire to by-name parameter, we can prevent these mistakes:

- def bracket[R, E, A](acquire: ZIO[R, E, A]): ZIO.BracketAcquire[R, E, A]
+ def bracket[R, E, A](acquire: => ZIO[R, E, A]): ZIO.BracketAcquire[R, E, A]

So, in ZIO 2.x if we accidentally introduce an effect to the ZIO parameters, the lazy parameter prevents the program from producing undesired behaviors:

// Note that in ZIO 2.x, the `bracket` is deprecated and renamed to the `acquireReleaseWith`. In this example to prevent the consistency of our example, we used the `bracket`.

ZIO.bracket({
val random = scala.util.Random.nextInt()
ZIO.succeed(random)
})(_ => ZIO.unit)(x => console.putStrLn(x.toString)).repeatN(2)

The output would be something like this:

355191016
2046799548
333146616

Composable Zips

In ZIO 2.x, when we are zipping together different effects:

  • Tuples are not nested.
  • Units do not contribute to the output.

Assume we have these effects:

val x1: UIO[Int]     = ZIO.succeed(???)
val x2: UIO[Unit] = ZIO.succeed(???)
val x3: UIO[String] = ZIO.succeed(???)
val x4: UIO[Boolean] = ZIO.succeed(???)

In ZIO 1.x, the output of zipping together these effects are nested:

val zipped = x1 <*> x2 <*> x3 <*> x4

While in ZIO 2.x, we have more ergonomics result type and also the Unit data-type doesn't contribute to the output:

val zipped = x1 <*> x2 <*> x3 <*> x4

This change is not only for the ZIO data type but also for all other data types like ZStream, ZSTM, etc.

As we have compositional zips, we no longer need higher arity zips in ZIO 1.x like mapN, mapParN, Gen#zipN, and Gen#crossN. They are deprecated in ZIO 2.x.

Here is the list of zip variants that are deprecated:

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
ZIO#&&&ZIO#zip
ZIO.tupledZIO.zip
ZIO.tupledParZIO.zipPar
ZIO.mapNZIO.zip
ZIO.mapParNZIO.zipPar

Compositional Concurrency

We introduced two operations that modify the parallel factor of a concurrent ZIO effect, ZIO#withParallelism and ZIO#withParallelismUnbounded. This makes the maximum number of fibers for parallel operators as a regional setting. Therefore, all parallelism operators ending in N, such as foreachParN and collectAllParN, have been deprecated:

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
foreachParNforeachPar
foreachParN_foreachParDiscard
collectAllParNcollectAllPar
collectAllParN_collectAllParDiscard
collectAllWithParNcollectAllWithPar
collectAllSuccessesParNcollectAllSuccessesPar

Having separate methods for changing the parallelism factor of a parallel effect deprecates lots of extra operators and makes concurrency more compositional.

So instead of writing a parallel task like this:

ZIO.foreachParN(8)(urls)(download)

We should use the withParallelism method:

ZIO.foreachPar(urls)(download).withParallelism(8)

The withParallelismUnbounded method is useful when we want to run a parallel effect with an unbounded maximum number of fibers:

ZIO.foreachPar(urls)(download).withParallelismUnbounded

Either Values

In ZIO 1.x, the ZIO#left and ZIO#right operators are lossy, and they don't preserve the information on the other side of Either after the transformation.

For example, assume we have an effect of type ZIO[Any, Throwable, Left[Int, String]]:

val effect         = Task.effect(Left[Int, String](5))
// effect: ZIO[Any, Throwable, Left[Int, String]]
val leftProjection = effect.left
// leftProjection: ZIO[Any, Option[Throwable], Int]

The error channel of leftProjection doesn't contain type information of the other side of the Left[Int, String], which is String. So after projecting to the left, we can not go back to the original effect.

In ZIO 2.x, the ZIO#left and ZIO#right, contains all type information so then we can unleft or unright to inverse that projection:

val effect         = ZIO.attempt(Left[Int, String](5))
val leftProjection = effect.left
val unlefted = leftProjection.map(_ * 2).unleft

So the error channel of the output of left and right operators is changed from Option to Either.

Descriptive Errors

ZIO's type system uses implicit evidence to ensure type safety, and some level of correctness at compile time. In ZIO 2.x, the subtype evidence, <:< replaced by these two descriptive implicit evidences:

  1. IsSubtypeOfOutput — The O1 IsSubtypeOfOutput O2 ensures that the output type O1 is subtype of O2

  2. IsSubtypeOfError — The E1 IsSubtypeOfError E2 ensures that the error type E1 is a subtype of E2

Now we have more descriptive errors at compile time in the vast majority of operators.

Let's just see an example of each one. In ZIO 1.x, the compiler print obscurant error messages:

ZIO.fail("Boom!").orDie
// error: Cannot prove that String <:< Throwable.
// ZIO.fail("Boom!").orDie
// ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

ZIO.succeed(Set(3,4)).head
// error: Cannot prove that scala.collection.immutable.Set[Int] <:< List[B].
// ZIO.succeed(Set(3, 4)).head
// ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Now in ZIO 2.x we have such informative error messages:

ZIO.fail("Boom!").orDie
// error: This operator requires that the error type be a subtype of Throwable but the actual type was String.
// ZIO.fail("Boom!").orDie
// ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

ZIO.succeed(Set(3, 4, 3)).head
// error: This operator requires that the output type be a subtype of List[B] but the actual type was scala.collection.immutable.Set[Int].
// ZIO.succeed(Set(3, 4, 3)).head
// ^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^^

Elimination of Default Services From The ZIO Environment

In ZIO 1.x we used default ZIO services such as Clock, Console, Random, and System along with the service pattern. So each time we used one of these services by obtaining them from the environment, the requirement of our effect becomes bigger and bigger. Finally, at the end of the world, we had two options, one was to use the default implementation of these services, and the other one was to use our own implementations.

For example, in ZIO 1.x, we have the following boilerplate code to print random numbers every second. The environment type of the myApp effect is Console with Clock with Random:

import zio._
import zio.clock.Clock
import zio.duration.durationInt
import zio.random.Random
import java.io.IOException
import zio.console._

object MainApp extends App {
val myApp: ZIO[Clock with Console with Random, IOException, Unit] =
for {
rnd <- random.nextIntBounded(100)
_ <- console.putStrLn(s"Random number: $rnd")
_ <- clock.sleep(1.second)
} yield ()
override def run(args: List[String]): URIO[zio.ZEnv, ExitCode] =
myApp.forever.exitCode
// or we can provide our own implementation
// myApp.forever.provideLayer(Console.live ++ Clock.live ++ Random.live).exitCode
}

But these services did not fit well with the service pattern because they were too low level and users frequently used them directly in their code to use the default implementation out of the box. So in most cases, users were not meant to provide their own implementation of these services. In another hand, as they are low level, they are used very often, so they pollute the environment type of the effect. They are too small to be used with the service pattern.

To improve on this, in ZIO 2.x, we deleted default services from the environment, instead, we built these services into the ZIO Runtime. So these services can still be modified and testable. In ZIO 2.x we encourage using the environment for higher-level services.

Therefore, the previous example In ZIO 2.x can be rewritten very simply as below:

import zio._

import java.io.IOException

object MainApp extends App {
val myApp: ZIO[Any, IOException, Unit] =
for {
rnd <- Random.nextIntBounded(100)
_ <- Console.printLine(s"Random number: $rnd")
_ <- Clock.sleep(1.second)
} yield ()

def run = myApp.forever
}

In nutshell, to migrate from ZIO 1.x to ZIO 2.x, we need follow these steps:

  1. We aren't required to obtain default services from the environment using functions like ZIO.service[Console], instead we should obtain the Console service using ZIO.console. So there is no need to access these services from the environment anymore, they are built into the ZIO Runtime. If we want to access them, we can use these functions instead:
  • ZIO.console/ZIO.consoleWith
  • ZIO.clock/ZIO.clockWith
  • ZIO.random/ZIO.randomWith
  • ZIO.system/ZIO.systemWith
for {
- random <- ZIO.service[Random]
+ random <- ZIO.random
} yield ()
  1. By removing these services from the environment, all usage of ZEnv, Console, Clock, Random, or System in the environment type of ZIO, ZStream and ZLayer should be generally deleted:
- val myApp: ZIO[Clock with Console with Random with UserRepo with Logging, IOException, Unit] = ???
+ val myApp: ZIO[UserRepo with Logging, IOException, Unit] = ???
  1. If we want to use the live version in tests we can use these test aspects instead of providing them as layers: withLiveClockwithLiveConsolewithLiveRandomwithLiveSystemwithLiveEnvironment

For example:

- testM("TestLiveClock") { ... }.provideLayer(Clock.live)
+ test("TestLiveClock") { ... } @@ withLiveClock
  1. In ZIO 1.x, whenever we wanted to provide our own versions of ZIO default services, we could do that using one of the ZIO#provide* operators. In ZIO 2.x if we need to modify the implementation of one of these services on a more fine-grained basis we can use of the following combinators:
  • ZIO.withConsole/ZIO.withConsoleScoped
  • ZIO.withClock/ZIO.withClockScoped
  • ZIO.withRandom/ZIO.withRandomScoped
  • ZIO.withSystem/ZIO.withSystemScoped
import zio._

object MyClockLive extends Clock {
...
}

ZIO.withClock(MyClockLive)(effect)
  1. According to the removal of default services from the ZIO environment we no longer need layers defined in the ZIO library which produce default ZIO services. So all these layers were removed, such as the following layers:
  • Console.live, Clock.any
  • Clock.live, Clock.javaClock, Clock.any
  • Random.live, Random.scalaRandom, Random.any
  • System.live, System.any
  1. In ZIO some services have an alternative implementation rather than the default one. In ZIO 1.x, the default implementation of these services was provided by the environment. So when we wanted to use the default implementation, we don't require to provide them explicitly at the end of the world. But if we wanted to use the alternative implementation, we need to provide them explicitly. For example, to use the java implementation of Clock, we need to provide the Clock.javaClock layer:
import zio._
import zio.clock.Clock

object MainApp extends App {
def run(args: List[String]) =
clock.localDateTime
.debug("local date time")
.provideCustomLayer(
ZLayer.succeed(
java.time.Clock.systemDefaultZone()
) >>> Clock.javaClock
)
.orDie
.exitCode
}

By removal of default services from the environment, their corresponding layers were removed. So we should call them directly as follows:

import zio._

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
def run =
Clock.ClockJava(java.time.Clock.systemDefaultZone())
.currentDateTime
.debug("current date time")
}

The same approach applies to the Random service:

ZIO 1.x (ZLayer)ZIO 2.x
Clock.javaClockClock.ClockJava
Random.scalaRandomRandom.RandomScala
  1. In ZIO 1.x, the ZEnv was the type alias for all default services used in the ZIO environment. In ZIO 2.x, as the default services were removed from the environment, the ZEnv type alias was removed. And we have the DefaultServices.live to access the live implementation of default services.

ZIO App

ZIOApp

In ZIO 1.x, we were used to writing ZIO applications using the zio.App trait:

import zio.App
import zio.Console._

object MyApp extends zio.App {
def run(args: List[String]) =
startMyApp(args).exitCode
}

Now in ZIO 2.x, the zio.App trait is deprecated and, we have the zio.ZIOAppDefault trait which is simpler than the former approach (Note that the ZApp is also deprecated, and we should use the ZIOAppDefault instead):

import zio.ZIOAppDefault
import zio.Console._

object MyApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
def run =
for {
arguments <- getArgs
_ <- startMyApp(arguments)
} yield ()
}

In ZIO 1.x, run is the main function of our application, which will be passed the command-line arguments to our application:

def run(args: List[String]): URIO[R, ExitCode]

While in most cases we don't write command-line applications, and we don't use it, in ZIO 2.x, we created the ZIOAppArgs service and a helper method called ZIOApp#args which obtains access to the command-line arguments of our application:

trait ZIOApp { self =>
final def args: ZIO[ZIOAppArgs, Nothing, Chunk[String]] = ZIO.service[ZIOAppArgs].map(_.args)
}

Fiber

We deprecated the Fiber.ID and moved it to the zio package and called it the FiberId:

ZIO 1.0ZIO 2.x
zio.Fiber.IDzio.FiberID

Runtime, Platform and Executor

Unsafe Marker

To run a ZIO workflow, we usually use ZIOAppDefault or ZIOApp traits. These traits provide the run method which will run the workflow using their default Runtime system. But when we want to work with a low-level API or want to integrate with a legacy code, we need to unsafely run the workflow.

In ZIO 1.x, we used the zio.Runtime.unsafeRun method to run a ZIO workflow:

trait Runtime[+R] {
def unsafeRun[E, A](zio: => ZIO[R, E, A]): A
}

For example, if we wanted to integrate a ZIO workflow with a legacy unsafe code, we used to write something like this:

import zio._

object MainApp {
val zioWorkflow: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Int] = ???

def legacyApplication(input: Int): Unit = ???

def zioApplication: Int =
Runtime.default.unsafeRun(zioWorkflow)


def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
legacyApplication(zioApplication)
}

}

In ZIO 2.x, we added the Unsafe data type to help developers to differentiate lower-level codes that are not purely functional from the higher-level codes which are always pure, total, and type safe. So the Unsafe is just a marker capability to indicate that something is unsafe:

object Unsafe {
def unsafe[A](f: Unsafe => A): A = ???
}

trait Runtime[+R] { self =>
def unsafe: UnsafeAPI

trait UnsafeAPI {
def run[E, A](zio: ZIO[R, E, A])(implicit trace: Trace, unsafe: Unsafe): Exit[E, A]
}
}

So to migrate the previous code to ZIO 2.x, we need to use the Unsafe data type like below:

import zio._

object MainApp {
val zioWorkflow: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Int] = ???

def legacyApplication(input: Int): Unit = ???

def zioApplication: Int =
- Runtime.default.unsafeRun(zioWorkflow)
+ Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe =>
+ Runtime.default.unsafe.run(zioWorkflow).getOrThrowFiberFailure()
+ }

def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
legacyApplication(zioApplication)
}

}

This way it is easy to distinguish between safe and unsafe variants of the same operator.

To run an unsafe operator, we need implicit value of Unsafe in scope. This works particularly well in Scala 3 due to its support for implicit function types championed by Martin Odersky. In Scala 3 we can use the Unsafe.unsafe operator to create a block of code in which we can freely call unsafe operators:

Unsafe.unsafe {
Runtime.default.unsafe.run(Console.printLine("Hello, World!"))
}

If we want to support Scala 2 we need to use a slightly more verbose syntax:

import zio._

Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe =>
Runtime.default.unsafe.run(Console.printLine("Hello, World!"))
}

In summary, here are the rules for migrating from ZIO 1.x to ZIO 2.x corresponding to the unsafe operators:

ZIO 1.0ZIO 2.x
Scala 2runtime.unsafeRun(x)Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe => runtime.unsafe.run(x).getOrThrowFiberFailure() }
Scala 3runtime.unsafeRun(x)Unsafe.unsafe { runtime.unsafe.run(x).getOrThrowFiberFailure() }

Unsafe Variants

In ZIO 1.x, the Runtime had several methods for running ZIO workflows unsafely:

trait Runtime[+R] {
def unsafeRun[E, A](zio: => ZIO[R, E, A]): A
def unsafeRunTask[A](task: => RIO[R, A]): A
def unsafeRunSync[E, A](zio: => ZIO[R, E, A]): Exit[E, A]
def unsafeRunAsync[E, A](zio: => ZIO[R, E, A])(k: Exit[E, A] => Any): Unit
def unsafeRunAsyncCancelable[E, A](zio: => ZIO[R, E, A])(k: Exit[E, A] => Any): Fiber.Id => Exit[E, A]
def unsafeRunAsync_[E, A](zio: ZIO[R, E, A]): Unit
def unsafeRunToFuture[E <: Throwable, A](zio: ZIO[R, E, A]): CancelableFuture[A]
}

We can group these unsafe methods into two categories: synchronous and asynchronous. The synchronous operators are the ones that are used when we want to wait for the result of the workflow to be available. The asynchronous operators are used when we want to execute the workflow asynchronously by providing a callback function that will be called when the workflow is completed.

In the previous section, we described the new run method inside the unsafe object of the Runtime trait. We can use this method to unsafely run workflows synchronously. There is another method, called fork, that can be used to unsafely run workflows asynchronously:

trait Runtime {
def unsafe: UnsafeAPI

trait UnsafeAPI {
def run[E, A](zio: ZIO[R, E, A])(implicit unsafe: Unsafe): Exit[E, A]

def fork[E, A](zio: ZIO[R, E, A])(implicit unsafe: Unsafe): Fiber.Runtime[E, A]
}
}

The fork method returns a Fiber.Runtime that can be used to control the execution of the workflow. We have added a new unsafe object to the Fiber.Runtime class that has several unsafe methods including the addObserver:

object Fiber {
sealed abstract class Runtime[+E, +A] extends Fiber[E, A] {
def unsafe: UnsafeAPI

trait UnsafeAPI {
def addObserver(observer: Exit[E, A] => Unit)(implicit unsafe: Unsafe): Unit
}
}
}

Using the addObserver method, we can add a callback function of type Exit[E, A] => Unit to the underlying fiber. This callback function will be called when the fiber completes. Using these new functionalities, we can implement asynchronous unsafe operators like before. For example, assume we have the following code in ZIO 1.x:

// ZIO 1.x
import zio._
import zio.console._
import zio.duration._

Runtime.default.unsafeRunAsync(
console.putStrLn("After 3 seconds I will return 5").delay(3.seconds).as(5)
)(
_.fold(
e => println(s"Failure: $e"),
v => println(s"Success: $v")
)
)

We can rewrite it in ZIO 2.x as follows:

// ZIO 2.x
import zio._

Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe =>
Runtime.default.unsafe
.fork(
Console
.printLine("After 3 seconds I will return 5")
.delay(3.second)
.as(5)
)
.unsafe
.addObserver(
_.fold(
e => println(s"Failure: $e"),
v => println(s"Success: $v")
)
)
}

Similarly, we can do the same for other unsafe operators. Here are some of them:

ZIO 1.0ZIO 2.x
runtime.unsafeRunSync(x)Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe => runtime.unsafe.run(x) }
runtime.unsafeRunTask(x)Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe => runtime.unsafe.run(x).getOrThrow() }
runtime.unsafeRunAsync_(x)Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe => runtime.unsafe.fork(x) }
runtime.unsafeRunToFuture(x)Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe => runtime.unsafe.runToFuture(x) }

Runtime Customization using Layers

In ZIO 2.x we deleted the zio.internal.Platform data type, and instead, we use layers to customize the runtime. This allows us to use ZIO workflows in customizing our runtime (e.g. loading some configuration information to set up logging).

In ZIO 1.x, we had the Platform data type useful for providing custom execution configurations to the runtime:

  • Platform#withExecutor— To provide a custom Executor
  • Platform#withTracing to config tracing functionality
  • Platform#withSupervisor to provide a Supervisor
  • Platform#withScheduler to provide a Scheduler
  • etc.

Here is an example of creating a custom Runtime in ZIO 1.x:

import zio._
import zio.internal.Executor

object MainApp extends zio.App {
val customExecutor: Executor = ???

val myApp: UIO[Unit] =
ZIO.debug("Application started")

def run(args: List[String]): URIO[ZEnv, ExitCode] =
ZIO
.runtime[ZEnv]
.map { runtime =>
Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe =>
runtime
.mapPlatform(_.withExecutor(customExecutor))
.unsafe
.run(myApp)
.getOrThrowFiberFailure()
}
}
.exitCode
}

In ZIO 2.x, the whole Platform was deleted and instead, we have several out-of-the-box layers for runtime customization, defined in the companion object of the Runtime trait. Here are some of them:

  • Runtime.addLogger to add a logger
  • Runtime.setExecutor to provide a custom Executor
  • Runtime.enableOpLog to log runtime information
  • Runtime.enableRuntimeMetrics to track runtime metrics
  • etc.

Let's see how a previous example can be rewritten in ZIO 2.x:

import zio._

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
val customExecutor: zio.Executor = ???

val myApp =
ZIO.debug("Application started")

def run =
myApp.provide(
Runtime.setExecutor(customExecutor)
)
}

Note that ZIO ecosystem libraries like ZMX may have their own layers that install all necessary functionality.

Runtime Customization Using ZIO Data Type

To access information about the configuration of our ZIO program as we are running, there are some more specific operators that we can use, such as:

  • ZIO.executor/ZIO.executorWith
  • ZIO.logger/ZIO.loggerWith
  • ZIO.isFatal/ZIO.isFatalWith

Runtime Configurations are Scoped

When we access a Runtime using ZIO.runtime it will inherit all the configuration of the current workflow so if we use it to run effects they will be run with the same logger and so on:

import zio._

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
val workflow1 = ZIO.debug("workflow1 is running") *> ZIO.log("This line will never get logged")
val workflow2 = ZIO.debug("workflow2 is running") *> ZIO.log("This line will get logged")
val workflow3 = ZIO.debug("workflow3 is running") *> ZIO.log("This line will never get logged")

def run =
ZIO.provideLayer(Runtime.removeDefaultLoggers) {
ZIO.runtime[Any].flatMap(_.run(workflow1)) *>
ZIO.provideLayer(Runtime.addLogger(Runtime.defaultLoggers.head)) {
ZIO.runtime[Any].flatMap(_.run(workflow2))
} *> workflow3
}
}

Custom Runtime for Mixed Applications

In ZIO 2.x, to create a custom runtime in mixed applications we combine all the layers that do our customization and then perform the Runtime.unsafe.fromLayer operation:

import zio._

object MainApp {
val sl4jlogger: ZLogger[String, Any] = ???

def legacyApplication(input: Int): Unit = ???

val zioWorkflow: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Int] = ???

def zioApplication(): Int =
Unsafe.unsafe { implicit unsafe =>
Runtime
.unsafe
.fromLayer(
Runtime.removeDefaultLoggers ++ Runtime.addLogger(sl4jlogger)
)
.unsafe
.run(zioWorkflow)
.getOrThrowFiberFailure()
}

def main(args: Array[String]): Unit = {
val result = zioApplication()
legacyApplication(result)
}

}

Executor

We moved the Executor from zio.internal to the zio package:

ZIO 1.0ZIO 2.x
zio.internal.Executorzio.Executor

Auto-Blocking

In ZIO 1.x, we have two groups of constructors for importing synchronous side effects, one for importing synchronous side effects, such as zio.effect and the other one for importing synchronous side effects, but we know that they are blocking, such as zio.blocking.effectBlocking.

The first one uses an asynchronous thread pool to execute side effects, while the second one uses a blocking thread pool.

For performance reasons, the number of asynchronous threads is limited to a fixed number. So if the programmer mistakenly imports a blocking operation using the ZIO.effect instead of zio.blocking.effectBlocking it might block all limited threads in the asynchronous pool, and then starvation might occur.

So if we run the following code if the ioBoundWorkflow starts executing before the cpuBoundWorkflow for some amount of time, all threads in the asynchronous thread pool will be blocked and the cpuBoundWorkflow will never get executed:

// ZIO 1.x
import zio._
import zio.duration.durationInt

import scala.annotation.tailrec

object MainApp extends App {

def fib(n: Int): BigInt = {
@tailrec
def go(n: BigInt, a: BigInt, b: BigInt): BigInt = {
if (n == 0) a
else go(n - 1, b, a + b)
}
go(n, 0, 1)
}

def ioBoundWorkflow =
ZIO.debug("Starting I/O bound workflow") *>
ZIO.foreachPar_(1 to 100)(_ => ZIO.effect(Thread.sleep(Long.MaxValue))) *>
ZIO.debug("Finished I/O bound workflow")

def cpuBoundWorkflow =
ZIO.debug("Starting CPU bound workflow") *>
ZIO.foreachPar_(1 to 100)(i => ZIO.effect(fib(i))) *>
ZIO.debug("Finished CPU bound workflow")

// the delay for the CPU bound workflow is not needed but we want to take
// a chance that all threads in the asynchronous thread pool will be blocked
def run(args: List[String]) =
(ioBoundWorkflow <&> cpuBoundWorkflow.delay(1.second)).exitCode
}

This is why we should import blocking synchronous side effects using the zio.blocking.effectBlocking instead of the ZIO.effect.

In ZIO 2.x, as the same as in ZIO 1.x, we encourage separating blocking operations (I/O work operations) from the ordinary side effects (CPU work operations).

But the one thing that makes ZIO 2.x more powerful than ZIO 1.x is that if the programmer accidentally imports a blocking synchronous side effect using the ZIO.attempt instead of ZIO.attemptBlocking the runtime scheduler will automatically detect blocking workflows and shift them to the blocking executor:

// ZIO 2.x
import zio._

import scala.annotation.tailrec

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {

def fib(n: Int): BigInt = {
@tailrec
def go(n: BigInt, a: BigInt, b: BigInt): BigInt = {
if (n == 0) a
else go(n - 1, b, a + b)
}
go(n, 0, 1)
}

def ioBoundWorkflow =
ZIO.debug("Starting I/O bound workflow") *>
ZIO.foreachParDiscard(1 to 100)(_ =>
ZIO.attempt(Thread.sleep(Long.MaxValue))
) *>
ZIO.debug("Finished I/O bound workflow")

def cpuBoundWorkflow =
ZIO.debug("Starting CPU bound workflow") *>
ZIO.foreachParDiscard(1 to 100)(i => ZIO.attempt(fib(i))) *>
ZIO.debug("Finished CPU bound workflow")

def run = ioBoundWorkflow <&> cpuBoundWorkflow.delay(1.second)
}

In the above example, although we imported the blocking operation wrongly, the runtime scheduler will detect that and prevent the blocking operation from being executed in the asynchronous thread pool. So the cpuBoundWorkflow will be executed without any starvation problem.

ZLayer

Constructing Layers

In ZIO 1.x, when we want to write a service that depends on other services, we need to use ZLayer.fromService* variants with a lot of boilerplate:

val live: URLayer[FooService with BarService, BazService] =
ZLayer.fromServices[FooService.Service, BarService.Service, BazService.Service] {
(fooService: FooService.Service, barService: BarService.Service) =>
new BazService.Service {
override def baz: UIO[Unit] =
for {
_ <- fooService.foo
_ <- barService.bar
} yield ()
}
}

ZIO 2.x deprecates all ZLayer.fromService* functions. Instead, we use a for comprehension:

trait FooService {
def foo: UIO[Unit]
}

trait BarService {
def bar: UIO[Unit]
}

trait BazService {
def baz: UIO[Unit]
}

case class BazServiceImpl(fooService: FooService, barService: BarService) extends BazService {
override def baz: UIO[Unit] =
for {
_ <- fooService.foo
_ <- barService.bar
} yield ()
}

object LoggingLive {
val layer: ZLayer[FooService & BarService, Nothing, BazService] =
ZLayer {
for {
fooService <- ZIO.service[FooService]
barService <- ZIO.service[BarService]
} yield BazServiceImpl(fooService, barService)
}
}

Accessing a Service from the Environment

Assume we have a service named Logging:

trait Logging {
def log(line: String): UIO[Unit]
}

In ZIO 1.x, when we wanted to access a service from the environment, we used the ZIO.access + Has#get combination (ZIO.access(_.get)):

val logging: URIO[Logging, Logging] = ZIO.access(_.get)

Also, to create accessor methods, we used the following code:

def log(line: String): URIO[Logging, Unit] = ZIO.accessM(_.get.log(line))

ZIO 2.x reduces one level of indirection by using ZIO.service operator:

val logging : URIO[Logging, Logging] = ZIO.service

And to write the accessor method in ZIO 2.x, we can use ZIO.serviceWithZIO operator:

def log(line: String): URIO[Logging, Unit] = ZIO.serviceWithZIO(_.log(line))

Accessing Multiple Services in the Environment

In ZIO 1.x, we could access multiple services using higher arity service accessors like ZIO.services.

for {
(fooService, barService) <- ZIO.services[FooService, BarService]
foo <- fooService.foo()
bar <- barService.bar()
_ <- console.putStrLn(s"foo: $foo, bar: $bar")
} yield ()

They were deprecated as we can achieve the same functionality using ZIO.service with for-comprehension syntax, which is more idiomatic and scalable way of accessing multiple services in the environment:

for {
fooService <- ZIO.service[FooService]
barService <- ZIO.service[BarService]
foo <- fooService.foo()
bar <- barService.bar()
_ <- Console.printLine(s"foo: $foo, bar: $bar")
} yield ()

Building the Dependency Graph

To create the dependency graph in ZIO 1.x, we should compose the required layer manually. As the ordering of layer compositions matters, and also we should care about composing layers in both vertical and horizontal manner, it would be a cumbersome job to create a dependency graph with a lot of boilerplates.

Assume we have the following dependency graph with two top-level dependencies:

           DocRepo                ++          UserRepo
____/ | \____ / \
/ | \ / \
Logging Database BlobStorage Logging Database
| | |
Console Logging Console
|
Console

In ZIO 1.x, we had to compose these different layers together to create the whole application dependency graph:

val appLayer: URLayer[Any, DocRepo with UserRepo] =
(((Console.live >>> Logging.live) ++ Database.live ++ (Console.live >>> Logging.live >>> BlobStorage.live)) >>> DocRepo.live) ++
(((Console.live >>> Logging.live) ++ Database.live) >>> UserRepo.live)

val res: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Unit] = myApp.provideLayer(appLayer)

As the development of our application progress, the number of layers will grow, and maintaining the dependency graph would be tedious and hard to debug.

For example, if we miss the Logging.live dependency, the compile-time error would be very messy:

myApp.provideLayer(
((Database.live ++ BlobStorage.live) >>> DocRepo.live) ++
(Database.live >>> UserRepo.live)
)
type mismatch;
found : zio.URLayer[zio.Logging with zio.Database with zio.BlobStorage,zio.DocRepo]
(which expands to) zio.ZLayer[zio.Logging with zio.Database with zio.BlobStorage,Nothing,zio.DocRepo]
required: zio.ZLayer[zio.Database with zio.BlobStorage,?,?]
((Database.live ++ BlobStorage.live) >>> DocRepo.live) ++

In ZIO 2.x, we can automatically construct dependencies with friendly compile-time hints, using ZIO#provide operator:

val res: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Unit] =
myApp.provide(
Logging.live,
Database.live,
BlobStorage.live,
DocRepo.live,
UserRepo.live
)

The order of dependencies doesn't matter:

val res: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Unit] =
myApp.provide(
DocRepo.live,
BlobStorage.live,
Logging.live,
Database.live,
UserRepo.live
)

If we miss some dependencies, it doesn't compile, and the compiler gives us the clue:

val app: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Unit] =
myApp.provide(
DocRepo.live,
BlobStorage.live,
// Logging.live,
Database.live,
UserRepo.live
)
  ZLayer Wiring Error  

❯ missing Logging
❯ for DocRepo.live

❯ missing Logging
❯ for UserRepo.live

We can also directly construct a layer using ZLayer.make:

val layer = ZLayer.make[DocRepo with UserRepo](
Logging.live,
DocRepo.live,
Database.live,
BlobStorage.live,
UserRepo.live
)

And also the ZLayer.makeSome helps us to construct a layer which requires on some service and produces some other services (URLayer[Int, Out]) using ZLayer.makeSome[In, Out]:

val layer = ZLayer.makeSome[Logging, DocRepo with UserRepo](
DocRepo.live,
Database.live,
BlobStorage.live,
UserRepo.live
)

In ZIO 1.x, the ZIO#provideSomeLayer provides environment partially:

val app: ZIO[Console, Nothing, Unit] =
myApp.provideSomeLayer[Console](
((Logging.live ++ Database.live ++ (Console.live >>> Logging.live >>> BlobStorage.live)) >>> DocRepo.live) ++
(((Console.live >>> Logging.live) ++ Database.live) >>> UserRepo.live)
)

In ZIO 2.x, we have a similar functionality but for injection, which is the ZIO#provideSome[Rest](l1, l2, ...) operator:

val app: ZIO[Any, Nothing, Unit] =
myApp.provideSome[Logging](
DocRepo.live,
Database.live,
BlobStorage.live,
UserRepo.live
)

Note:

In ZIO 2.x, the ZIO#provide method—together with its variant ZIO#provideSome—is a default and easier way of injecting dependencies to the environmental effect. We do not require creating the dependency graph manually, it will be automatically generated. In contrast, the ZIO#provideLayer—and its variant ZIO#provideSomeLayer—is useful for low-level and custom cases like.

ZLayer Debugging

To debug ZLayer construction, we have two built-in layers, i.e., ZLayer.Debug.tree and ZLayer.Debug.mermaid. For example, by including ZLayer.Debug.mermaid into our layer construction, the compiler generates the following debug information:

val layer = ZLayer.make[DocRepo with UserRepo](
Logging.live,
DocRepo.live,
Database.live,
BlobStorage.live,
UserRepo.live,
ZLayer.Debug.mermaid
)
[info]   ZLayer Wiring Graph  
[info]
[info] ◉ DocRepo.live
[info] ├─◑ Logging.live
[info] ├─◑ Database.live
[info] ╰─◑ BlobStorage.live
[info] ╰─◑ Logging.live
[info]
[info] ◉ UserRepo.live
[info] ├─◑ Logging.live
[info] ╰─◑ Database.live
[info]
[info] Mermaid Live Editor Link
[info] https://mermaid-js.github.io/mermaid-live-editor/edit/#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

Descriptive ZIOApp Environment Compiler Errors

In ZIO 1.x, if we mistakenly forget to provide some requirements, we have some complicated compile errors. Assume we have the following example:

// ZIO 1.x
import zio._

case class Config(host: String, port: Int)

trait Logger {
def log(line: Any): Task[Unit]
}

object MainApp extends App {
val myApp =
for {
config <- ZIO.service[Config]
logger <- ZIO.service[Logger]
_ <- logger.log(s"Application started with the following config: $config")
} yield ()

override def run(args: List[String]): URIO[zio.ZEnv, ExitCode] =
myApp.exitCode
}

This program needs Config and Logger layers, but we missed them. The compiler prints this mystic error, which is hard to reason about:

type mismatch;
found : zio.URIO[zio.Has[Config] with zio.Has[Logger] with zio.console.Console,zio.ExitCode]
(which expands to) zio.ZIO[zio.Has[Config] with zio.Has[Logger] with zio.Has[zio.console.Console.Service],Nothing,zio.ExitCode]
required: zio.URIO[zio.ZEnv,zio.ExitCode]
(which expands to) zio.ZIO[zio.Has[zio.clock.Clock.Service] with zio.Has[zio.console.Console.Service] with zio.Has[zio.system.System.Service] with zio.Has[zio.random.Random.Service] with zio.Has[zio.blocking.Blocking.Service],Nothing,zio.ExitCode]
myApp.exitCode

In ZIO 2.x, we have descriptive errors. Let's try the above example in ZIO 2.x:

import zio._

case class Config(host: String, port: Int)

trait Logger {
def log(line: Any): Task[Unit]
}

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
def run =
for {
config <- ZIO.service[Config]
logger <- ZIO.service[Logger]
_ <- logger.log(s"Application started with the following config: $config")
} yield ()
}

This will print the following error message:

[error] ──── ZIO APP ERROR ───────────────────────────────────────────────────
[error]
[error] Your effect requires a service that is not in the environment.
[error] Please provide a layer for the following type:
[error]
[error]
[error] 1. Logger
[error]
[error]
[error] Call your effect's provide method with the layers you need.
[error] You can read more about layers and providing services here:
[error]
[error] https://zio.dev/version-1.x/dataypes/contextual/index
[error]
[error] ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
[error]
[error] logger <- ZIO.service[Logger]
[error] ^
[error] one error found

It also warns if we provide layers more than needed:

import zio._

case class Config(host: String, port: Int)

trait Logger {
def log(line: Any): Task[Unit]
}

case class LoggerLive(console: Console) extends Logger {
override def log(line: Any): Task[Unit] =
console.printLine(line)
}

object LoggerLive {
val layer =
ZLayer {
for {
console <- ZIO.service[Console]
} yield LoggerLive(console)
}
}

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {
val myApp = for {
config <- ZIO.service[Config]
_ <- Console.printLine(s"Application started with the following config: $config")
} yield ()

def run =
myApp.provide(
Random.live,
ZLayer.succeed(Config("localhost", 8080)),
LoggerLive.layer
)
}

It will print the following warning message:

[error] ──── ZLAYER WARNING ──────────────────────────────────────────────────
[error]
[error] You have provided more than is required.
[error] You may remove the following 2 layers:
[error]
[error] 1. Random.live
[error] 2. LoggerLive.layer
[error]
[error]
[error] ──────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────────
[error]
[error] myApp.provide(
[error] ^
[error] one error found

Eliminators for Environmental Effects

In ZIO 2.x, layers become eliminators for environmental effects:

trait Foo
trait Bar

val fooLayer : ZLayer[Any, Nothing, Foo] = ZLayer.succeed(???)
val fooWithBar : ZIO[Foo with Bar, Throwable, Unit] = ZIO.succeed(???)
val bar : ZIO[Bar, Any, Unit] = fooLayer(fooWithBar)

In this example, by applying the fooLayer to the fooWithBarWithBaz effect it will eliminate the contextual Foo service from the environment of the effect.

Furthermore, we can compose multiple layers together and then eliminate services from the environmental effects:

import zio._

trait Foo
trait Bar
trait Baz

object MainApp extends ZIOAppDefault {

val needsFooAndBarAndBaz: ZIO[Foo & Bar & Baz, Nothing, Unit] =
for {
foo <- ZIO.service[Foo]
bar <- ZIO.service[Bar]
baz <- ZIO.service[Baz]
_ <- ZIO.debug(s"Foo: $foo, Bar: $bar, Baz: $baz")
} yield ()

val fooAndBarLayer: ULayer[Foo with Bar] =
ZLayer.succeed(new Foo {}) ++ ZLayer.succeed(new Bar {})

val needsBaz: ZIO[Baz, Nothing, Unit] =
fooAndBarLayer(needsFooAndBarAndBaz)

def run = needsBaz.provide(ZLayer.succeed(new Baz {}))

}

It helps us to provide contextual environments like the DSL below:

import zio._

trait Connection

val dbTransaction: ZLayer[Any, Throwable, Connection] = ZLayer.succeed(???)
val effect: ZIO[Connection, Throwable, Unit] = ZIO.succeed(???)

val result: ZIO[Any, Throwable, Unit] =
dbTransaction {
effect
}

The dbTransaction is a ZLayer of type ZLayer[Any, Throwable, Connection] which can eliminate the Connection service from the effect.

Service Pattern

The Service Pattern, formerly called "Module Pattern", is one of the most important changes in ZIO 2.x. Let's take a look at services in ZIO 1.x before discussing changes.

Assume we have already defined the Foo and Bar services using Service Pattern 1.0 as follows:

// ZIO 1.x
object foo {
type Foo = Has[Foo.Service]

object Foo {
trait Service {
def foo: UIO[String]
}
}
}

object bar {
type Bar = Has[Bar.Service]

object Bar {
trait Service {
def bar: UIO[String]
}
}
}

Here is a Baz service that uses the Foo and Bar services:

// ZIO 1.x
object baz {
// Defining the service type by wrapping the service interface with Has[_] data type
type Baz = Has[Baz.Service]

// Companion object that holds service interface and its live implementation
object Baz {
trait Service {
def baz(input: String): UIO[Unit]
}

// Live implementation of the Foo service
val live: ZLayer[Foo with Bar, Nothing, Baz] =
ZLayer.fromServices[Foo.Service, Bar.Service, Baz.Service] {
(fooSrv: Foo.Service, barSrv: Bar.Service) =>
new Baz.Service {
override def baz(input: String): UIO[Unit] =
for {
_ <- fooSrv.foo(input)
_ <- barSrv.bar(input)
} yield ()
}
}
}

// Accessor Methods
def baz(input: String): URIO[Baz, Unit] =
ZIO.accessM(_.get.baz(input))
}

The Baz service is a service which depends on the Foo and Bar services.

ZIO 2.x introduces the Service Pattern 2.0 which is much more concise and has more ergonomics. Let's see how the Baz service can be implemented using this new pattern.

Assume we have already defined the Foo and Bar services, as below:

// ZIO 2.x

trait Foo {
def foo(input: String): UIO[Unit]
}

trait Bar {
def bar(input: String): UIO[Unit]
}

Now, here is the implementation of the Baz service based on the Service Pattern 2.0:

// ZIO 2.x

import zio._

// Defining the Service Interface
trait Baz {
def baz(input: String): UIO[Unit]
}

// Accessor Methods Inside the Companion Object
object Baz {
def baz(input: String): URIO[Baz, Unit] =
ZIO.serviceWithZIO(_.baz(input))
}

// Implementation of the Service Interface
case class BazLive(fooSrv: Foo, barSrv: Bar) extends Baz {
override def baz(input: String): UIO[Unit] =
for {
_ <- fooSrv.foo(input)
_ <- barSrv.bar(input)
} yield ()
}

// Converting the Service Implementation into the ZLayer
object BazLive {
val layer: URLayer[Foo & Bar, Baz] =
ZLayer {
for {
fooSrv <- ZIO.service[Foo]
barSrv <- ZIO.service[Bar]
} yield BazLive(fooSrv, barSrv)
}
}

As we see, we have the following changes:

  1. Deprecation of Type Alias for Has Wrappers — In Service Pattern 1.0 although the type aliases were to prevent using Has[ServiceName] boilerplate everywhere, they were confusing, and led to doubly nested Has[Has[ServiceName]]. So the Service Pattern 2.0 doesn't anymore encourage using type aliases. Also, they were removed from all built-in ZIO services. So, the type Foo = Has[Foo.Service] removed and the Foo.Service will just be Foo.

  2. Introducing Constructor-based Dependency Injection — In Service Pattern 1.0 when we wanted to create a layer that depends on other services, we had to use ZLayer.fromService* constructors. The problem with the ZLayer constructors is that there are too many constructors each one is useful for a specific use-case, but people had troubled in spending a lot of time figuring out which one to use.

    In Service Pattern 2.0 we don't worry about all these different ZLayer constructors. It recommends providing dependencies as interfaces through the case class constructor, and then we have direct access to all of these dependencies to implement the service. Finally, to create the ZLayer we use a for comprehension.

  3. Separated Interface — In the Service Pattern 2.0, ZIO supports the Separated Interface pattern which encourages keeping the implementation of an interface decoupled from the client and its definition.

    As our application grows, where we define our layers matters more. Separated Interface is a very useful pattern while we are developing a complex application. It helps us to reduce the coupling between application components.

    Following two changes in Service Pattern we can define the service definition in one package but its implementations in other packages:

    1. Flattened Structure — In the new pattern, everything is at the top level in a file. So the developer is not limited to package service definition and service implementation in one package.

      Note:

      Service Pattern 2.0 supports the idea of Separated Interface, but it doesn't enforce us grouping them into different packages and modules. The decision is up to us, based on the complexity and requirements of our application.

    2. Decoupling Interfaces from Implementation — Assume we have a complex application, and our interface is Baz with different implementations that potentially depend on entirely different modules. Putting layers in the service definition means anyone depending on the service definition needs to depend on all the dependencies of all the implementations, which is not a good practice.

      In Service Pattern 2.0, layers are defined in the implementation's companion object, not in the interface's companion object. So instead of calling Baz.live to access the live implementation we call BazLive.layer.

  4. Accessor Methods — The new pattern reduced one level of indirection on writing accessor methods. So instead of accessing the environment (ZIO.access/ZIO.accessM) and then retrieving the service from the environment (Has#get) and then calling the service method, the Service Pattern 2.0 introduced the ZIO.serviceWith that is a more concise way of writing accessor methods. For example, instead of ZIO.accessM(_.get.baz(input)) we write ZIO.serviceWithZIO(_.baz(input)).

The Service Pattern 1.0 was somehow complicated and had some boilerplates. The Service Pattern 2.0 is so much familiar to people coming from an object-oriented world. So it is so much easy to learn for newcomers. The new pattern is much simpler.

Other Changes

Here is list of other deprecated methods:

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
ZLayer.fromEffectZLayer.fromZIO
ZLayer.fromEffectManyZLayer.fromZIOMany
ZLayer.fromFunctionMZLayer.fromFunctionZIO
ZLayer.fromFunctionManyMZLayer.fromFunctionManyZIO
ZLayer.identityZLayer.service
ZLayer.requiresZLayer.service

Scopes

ZIO 2.x introduced a new data type called Scope. Scopes are a huge simplification to resource management in ZIO 2.0 that brings new levels of simplicity, power, and performance. They are a replacement for the old ZManaged data type in ZIO 1.x.

ZManaged

In ZIO 1.x, we used a data type called ZManaged to provide resource safety. Although inspired by the Managed data type from Haskell, ZIO Managed innovated in a number of ways over both Haskell and Cats Effect Resource:

  1. ZManaged supported interruptible acquisition, which is useful for concurrent data structures like semaphores, where it is safe to interrupt acquisition because the cleanup can determine (by inspecting the in-memory state) whether the acquisition succeeded or not.

  2. ZManaged supported parallel operations, all with the most desirable semantics possible. For example, if we acquired resources in parallel, then they would be released in parallel, and if anything went wrong, of course, the acquisition would be aborted and resources released.

  3. ZManaged has an API almost identical to ZIO, by design, so our knowledge of ZIO transfers to Managed. The main difference is that in ZManaged, flatMap lets us use and keep open a resource, while use lets us use and release the resource (going back to ZIO).

  4. In addition, ZManaged has new constructors, so we can create them from a pair of acquire/release actions, or from just a finalizer (which would be invoked during finalization).

Despite the innovation and numerous benefits, however, ZManaged presents some serious drawbacks:

  • First, ZManaged is yet another thing to teach to developers. Many new ZIO developers try to avoid using ZManaged, because they are not sure exactly what it's for or how it differs from ZIO. Those who use it, sometimes wonder when to use ZIO versus ZManaged.

  • Second, all the methods on ZIO must be manually and painstakingly re-implemented on ZManaged, but with much more complex implementations due to the complications of handling resource-safety in the presence of concurrency. In practice, ZIO still has more methods than ZManaged.

  • Third, ZManaged is a layer over ZIO, and is slower than ZIO itself, because of the additional complications and wrapping. Unlike other approaches, ZIO uses an executable encoding, so it's able to avoid double-interpretation, but it still has measurable overhead over ZIO.

Despite the drawbacks of ZManaged, the benefits of concurrent resource safety are significant, so we documented, supported, and tried to optimize ZManaged over the life of ZIO 1.x, not having a suitable alternative.

Scopes

The concept of scopes has been implicit in ZIO since before ZIO 1.0, including in ZManaged, FiberRef, interruptibility, and thread pool shifting. In each of these cases we "do something" at the beginning of the scope (e.g. acquire a resource, set a FiberRef, change the interruptibility of the thread pool) and "do something else" (release the resource, restore the FiberRef, restore the interruptibility or thread pool) at the end of the scope.

However, scopes have not been first-class values, which has required the use of other data types such as ZManaged to represent this concept. With ZIO 2.0, all of this is radically changing for the better! Thanks to other ZIO 2.0 innovations, including the removal of Has (which bakes a compositional environment directly into the ZIO data type), we have found a way to delete ZManaged entirely, while preserving all of its benefits!

ZIO 2.x addresses this by introducing the concept of a Scope as a first class value:

trait Scope {
def addFinalizerExit(finalizer: Exit[Any, Any] => UIO[Any]): UIO[Unit]
def close(exit: Exit[Any, Any]): UIO[Unit]
}

That is, a Scope is something that we can add finalizers to and eventually close, running all of the finalizers in the scope. Operations that acquire resources add their finalizers directly to the current scope, stored in ZIO Environment. So we found that the ZIO Environment is now powerful enough to provide resource-safety by itself!

For example, an operation that opens a file might have this type signature:

def openFile(name: String): ZIO[Scope, IOException, FileInputStream] =
ZIO.acquireRelease(acquire)(release)

The openFile workflow requires a Scope to be run and its implementation will add a finalizer to the scope that will close the file. So, in combination with the environment, we can use Scope to represent resources.

This allows us to work with the resource and compose it with other resources, much like we do with ZManaged. Then, when we are ready to close the scope we use ZIO.scoped to provide the scope and eliminate it from the environment, much the same way we do with use on ZManaged:

ZIO.scoped {
openFile(name).flatMap(file => useFile(file)) // ZIO[Scoped, IOException, Unit]
} // ZIO[Any, IOException, Unit]

ZIO.scoped eliminates Scope from the environment, leaving the rest of the environment unchanged. It converts the type of enclosed effect from ZIO[Scoped, IOException, Unit] to ZIO[Any, IOException, Unit]. So, we can think of it as an algebraic effect handler that handles the Scope effect by eliminating it from the set of algebraic effects being used. This is another use case of eliminators for environmental effect.

This simple, beautiful, and powerful design gives us bulletproof parallel and concurrent operators that may acquire resources with well-defined and optimal semantics in successful and failure scenarios. All the ZManaged semantics arise for free atop ZIO.

Scopes are simple because they don't require us to learn any new data types. Scopes are powerful because ZIO has more operators than ZManaged, and is always up to date with the latest and greatest. Scopes are fast because there are no layers atop ZIO.

In addition to providing simpler, more powerful, and faster resource management, the replacement of Managed with scopes is going to tremendously simplify the ZIO API: there will not be any more toManaged, mapManaged, etc, variants. Layers will always be constructed with ZIO.

Migration from ZManaged to Scope

Deferred Migration

For reasons of backward compatibility, ZManaged won't actually be deleted, but rather, moved to a separate library called zio-managed that our ZIO 2.0 application can depend on. However, ZIO Core, including ZIO Streams and ZIO Test, will no longer use ZManaged.

So, if we have a lot of code that used ZManaged and we are not ready to deal with it right now we can still use the ZManaged data type and compile our code. We can add the zio-managed dependency into the build.sbt file:

libraryDependencies += "dev.zio" %% "zio-managed" % "<2.x version>"

And then by adding import zio.managed._ we can access all ZManaged capabilities including extension methods on ZIO data types. This helps us to compile the ZIO 1.x code base which uses the ZManaged data type. Then we can smoothly refactor it to use the Scope data type instead.

Immediate Migration

Migration to Scope is easy and straightforward. As the ZManaged data type is removed from ZIO and all usages in ZIO Core, ZIO Stream, and ZIO Test are reimplemented in terms of Scope. We should follow these steps to migrate the ZManaged codebase to Scope:

  1. Replace all references to ZManaged[R, E, A] with ZIO[R with Scope, E, A].

Example:

object HttpClient {
- def make(): ZManaged[Config, IOException, HttpClient] = ???
+ def make(): ZIO[Config with Scope, IOException, HttpClient] = ???
}
  1. Replace all references to resource.use(f) with ZIO.scoped(resource.flatMap(f)):
- resource.use(f)
+ ZIO.scoped {
+ resource.flatMap(f)
+ }

Example:

- ZManaged
- .fromAutoCloseable(zio.blocking.effectBlockingIO(scala.io.Source.fromFile("file.txt")))
- .use(x => ZIO.succeed(x.getLines().length))
+ ZIO.scoped {
+ ZIO
+ .fromAutoCloseable(ZIO.attemptBlockingIO(scala.io.Source.fromFile("file.txt")))
+ .flatMap(x => ZIO.succeed(x.getLines().length))
+ }
  1. Replace all ZManaged constructors with ZIO.acquireRelease or one of its variants:
- ZManaged.make(acquire)(release)
+ ZIO.acquireRelease(acquire)(release)

Example:

- ZManaged.fromAutoCloseable(
- zio.blocking.effectBlockingIO(new FileInputStream("file.txt"))
- )
+ ZIO.fromAutoCloseable(
+ ZIO.attemptBlockingIO(new FileInputStream("file.txt"))
+ )
  1. Replace all usages of ZLayer(resource) or resource.toLayer with ZLayer.scoped(resource), all references to ZStream.managed(resource) with ZStream.scoped(resource), and so on for similar constructors:
- ZLayer {
- resource // with type of ZManaged[R, E, A]
- }
+ ZLayer.scoped {
+ resource // with type of ZIO[R with Scope, E, A]
+ }

- resource.toLayer
+ ZLayer.scoped(resource)

- ZStream.managed(resource)
+ ZStream.scoped(resource)
  1. Delete all uses of toManaged_:
- effect.toManaged_
+ effect
  1. Replace all uses of toManaged(finalizer) with withFinalizer(finalizer):
- effect.toManaged(finalizer)
+ effect.withFinalizer(finalizer)

Example:

val effect: ZIO[Any, IOException, FileInputStream] = ???
- effect.toManaged(is => ZIO.succeed(is.close))
+ effect.withFinalizer(is => ZIO.succeed(is.close()))

Finally, let's try a full example of converting a ZManaged codebase to the Scoped one. Assume we have written the following transfer function in ZIO 1.x using ZManaged:

import zio._
import zio.blocking._

import java.io._

def close(resource: Closeable): URIO[Blocking, Unit] =
effectBlockingIO(resource.close()).orDie

def is(file: String): ZManaged[Blocking, IOException, FileInputStream] =
ZManaged.make(effectBlockingIO(new FileInputStream(file)))(close)

def os(file: String): ZManaged[Blocking, IOException, FileOutputStream] =
ZManaged.make(effectBlockingIO(new FileOutputStream(file)))(close)

def copy(
from: FileInputStream,
to: FileOutputStream
): ZIO[Blocking, IOException, Unit] =
effectBlockingIO {
val buf = new Array[Byte](1024)
var length = 0
length = from.read(buf)

while (length > 0) {
to.write(buf, 0, length)
length = from.read(buf)
}
}

def transfer(from: String, to: String): ZIO[Blocking, IOException, Unit] = {
val resource = for {
from <- is(from)
to <- os(to)
_ <- copy(from, to).toManaged_
} yield ()
resource.useNow
}

As of ZIO 2.x, we should rewrite it as follows:

import zio._

import java.io._

def close(resource: Closeable): UIO[Unit] =
ZIO.attempt(resource.close()).orDie

def is(file: String): ZIO[Scope, IOException, FileInputStream] =
ZIO.acquireRelease(ZIO.attemptBlockingIO(new FileInputStream(file)))(close)

def os(file: String): ZIO[Scope, IOException, FileOutputStream] =
ZIO.acquireRelease(ZIO.attemptBlockingIO(new FileOutputStream(file)))(close)

def copy(
from: FileInputStream,
to: FileOutputStream
): IO[IOException, Unit] =
ZIO.attemptBlockingIO(???)

def transfer(from: String, to: String): IO[Throwable, Unit] =
ZIO.scoped {
for {
from <- is(from)
to <- os(to)
_ <- copy(from, to)
} yield ()
}

As we can see, the migration is quite straightforward, and it doesn't require much extra work.

Simplification of Concurrent Data Types

Even though highly polymorphic versions of ZIO concurrent data structures (e.g. ZRef, ZQueue) were elegant, they were used rarely. There was also some cost associated with polymorphism, such as errors, readability, and maintainability.

Therefore, we simplified these data structures by specializing them in their more monomorphic versions without significant loss of features:

ZIO 1.x (removed)ZIO 2.x
ZRef[+EA, +EB, -A, +B]Ref[A]
ZTRef[+EA, +EB, -A, +B]TRef[A]
ZRefM[-RA, -RB, +EA, +EB, -A, +B]Ref.Synchronized[A]
ZQueue[-RA, -RB, +EA, +EB, -A, +B]Queue[A]
ZHub[-RA, -RB, +EA, +EB, -A, +B]Hub[A]

Ref

ZIO 2.x unifies Ref and RefM. RefM becomes a subtype of Ref that has additional capabilities (i.e. the ability to perform effects within the operations) at some cost to performance:

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
RefMRef.Synchronized

As the RefM is renamed to Ref.Synchronized; now the Synchronized is a subtype of Ref. This change allows a Ref.Synchronized to be used anywhere a Ref is currently being used.

To perform the migration, after renaming these types to the newer ones (e.g. RefM renamed to Ref.Synchronized) we should perform the following method renames:

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
RefM#dequeueRefzio.stream.SubscriptionRef#changes
RefM#getAndUpdateRef.Synchronized#getAndUpdateZIO
RefM#getAndUpdateSomeRef.Synchronized#getAndUpdateSomeZIO
RefM#modifyRef.Synchronized#modifyZIO
RefM#modifySomeRef.Synchronized#modifySomeZIO
RefM#updateRef.Synchronized#updateZIO
RefM#updateAndGetRef.Synchronized#updateAndGetZIO
RefM#updateSomeRef.Synchronized#updateSomeZIO
RefM#updateSomeAndGetRef.Synchronized#updateSomeAndGetZIO

Semaphore and TSemaphore

There is a slight change on TSemaphore#withPermit method. In ZIO 2.x, instead of accepting STM values, it accepts only ZIO values and returns the ZIO value.

withPermitInputOutput
ZIO 1.xSTM[E, B]STM[E, B]
ZIO 2.xZIO[R, E, A]ZIO[R, E, A]

Queue

In ZIO 2.x, the Queue uses Chunk consistently with other ZIO APIs like ZIO Streams. This will avoid unnecessary conversions between collection types, particularly for streaming applications where streams use Chunk internally, but bulk take operations previously returned a List on Queue.

Here is a list of affected APIs: takeAll, takeUpTo, takeBetween, takeN, unsafePollAll, unsafePollN, and unsafeOfferAll. Let's see an example:

ZIO 1.x:

val taken: UIO[List[Int]] = for {
queue <- Queue.bounded[Int](100)
_ <- queue.offer(10)
_ <- queue.offer(20)
list <- queue.takeUpTo(5)
} yield list

ZIO 2.x:

val taken: UIO[Chunk[Int]] = for {
queue <- Queue.bounded[Int](100)
_ <- queue.offer(10)
_ <- queue.offer(20)
chunk <- queue.takeUpTo(5)
} yield chunk

ZIO Test

ZSpec

The ZSpec data type has been renamed to Spec.

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
ZSpecSpec

So without any special effort, whenever we use ZSpec we should change it to Spec, e.g.:

- val myspec: ZSpec[Any, Nothing] =
+ val myspec: Spec[Any, Nothing] =
test("my spec") {
assertTrue(true)
}

Composable Test Apps

In ZIO 2.x, the DefaultRunnableSpec deprecated, so in order to write tests, we should extend the ZIOSpecDefault abstract class. Due to this change, executable tests can be composed, similar to ZIOAppDefault:

import zio.ZIOApp
import zio.test._

object ExampleSpec1 extends ZIOSpecDefault {
def spec = suite("suite 1")(
test("passing test 1")(assertTrue(true)),
test("failing test 2")(assertTrue(false))
)
}

object ExampleSpec2 extends ZIOSpecDefault {
def spec = suite("suite 2")(
test("passing test")(assertTrue(true))
)
}

object AllSpecs extends ZIOApp.Proxy(ExampleSpec1 <> ExampleSpec2)

To run AllSpecs with sbt:

sbt Test/runMain AllSpecs

Smart Constructors

By introducing smart constructors, we do not longer have the testM function to create effectful test suits. Instead, we should use the test function:

ZIO 1.x:

suite("Ref") {
testM("updateAndGet") {
val result = Ref.make(0).flatMap(_.updateAndGet(_ + 1))
assertM(result)(Assertion.equalTo(1))
}
}

ZIO 2.x:

suite("Ref") {
test("updateAndGet") {
val result = Ref.make(0).flatMap(_.updateAndGet(_ + 1))
assertZIO(result)(Assertion.equalTo(1))
}
}

In ZIO 2.x, to create a test suite, it's not important that whether we are testing pure or effectful tests. The syntax is the same, and the test, and testM are unified. So the testM was removed.

Unification of Assertion and AssertionM

In ZIO 2.x, Assertion and AssertionM were unified to a single type, Assertion, so the AssertionM was removed. In ZIO 2.x, instead of writing effectful assertions (AssertionM) and then asserting workflows, we should perform workflows and then simply assert the result of the workflow.

Assume we have written the following test in ZIO 1.x:

testM("Effectful Assertion ZIO 1.x") {
def myEffectfulAssertion[Int](reference: Int): AssertionM[Int] = ???

val sut = ZIO.effect(???)
assertM(sut)(effectfulAssertion(5))
}

We can extract effectful operations from the effectful assertion and then perform the assertion like below:

test("Effectful Assertion ZIO 2.x") {
def myAssertion[Int](reference: Int): Assertion[Int] = ???

val res = for {
sut <- ZIO.effect(???)
res <- extractedOperations(sut)
} yield assert(res)(myAssertion(5))
}

Smart Assertion

ZIO 2.x, introduced a new test method, named assertTrue which allows us to assert an expected behavior using ordinary Scala expressions that return Boolean values instead of specialized assertion operators.

So instead of writing following test assertions:

val list   = List(1, 2, 3, 4, 5)
val number = 3
val option = Option.empty[Int]

suite("ZIO 1.x Test Assertions")(
test("contains")(assert(list)(Assertion.contains(5))),
test("forall")(assert(list)(Assertion.forall(Assertion.assertion("even")(actual => actual % 2 == 0)))),
test("less than")(assert(number)(Assertion.isLessThan(0))),
test("isSome")(assert(option)(Assertion.equalTo(Some(3))))
)

We can write them like this:

suite("ZIO 2.x SmartAssertions")(
test("contains")(assertTrue(list.contains(5))),
test("forall")(assertTrue(list.forall(_ % 2 == 0))),
test("less than")(assertTrue(number < 0)),
test("isSome")(assertTrue(option.get == 3))
)

Smart Assertions are extremely expressive, so when a test fails:

  • They highlight the exact section of the syntax with the path leading up to the left-hand side of the assertion that causes the failure.
  • They have the strong and nice diffing capability which shows where our expectation varies.
  • When using partial functions in test cases there is no problem with the happy path, but if something goes wrong, it is a little annoying to find what went wrong. But smart assertions are descriptive, e.g., when we call Option#get to an optional value that is None the test fails with a related error message: Option was None
  • They have lots of domains specific errors that talk to us in a language that we understand.

Compositional Specs

In ZIO 1.x, we cannot compose specs directly, although if we can combine all children's specs via the suite itself:

val fooSuite = suite("Foo")(fooSpec)
val barSuite = suite("Bar")(barSpec)
val bazSuite = suite("Baz")(bazSpec)

val bigSuite = suite("big suite")(fooSuite, barSuite, bazSuite)

Now in ZIO 2.x, we can compose two suites using binary composition operator without having to unnecessarily nest them inside another suite just for purpose of composition:

val bigSuite = fooSuite + barSuite + bazSuite

ZIO Streams

ZIO Streams 2.x, does not include any significant API changes. Almost the same code we have for ZIO Stream 1.x, this will continue working and doesn't break our code. So we don't need to relearn any APIs. So we have maintained a quite good source compatibility, but have to forget some API elements.

So far, before ZIO 2.0, ZIO Stream has included three main abstractions:

  1. ZStream — represents the source of elements
  2. ZSink — represents consumers of elements that can be composed together to create composite consumers
  3. ZTransducer — represents generalized stateful and effectful stream processing

ZIO Streams 1.x

In ZIO 2.0, we added an underlying abstraction called Channel. Channels are underlying both the Stream and Sink. So streams and sinks are just channels. So the Channel is an abstraction that unifies everything in ZIO Streams.

ZChannel

Channels are nexuses of I/O operations, which support both reading and writing:

  • A Channel can write some elements to the output, and it can terminate with some sort of done value. The Channel uses this done value to notify the downstream Channel that its emission of elements finished. In ZIO 2.x, the ZStream is encoded as an output side of the Channel.

  • A Channel can read from its input, and it can also terminate with some sort of done value, which is an upstream result. So a Channel has the input type, and the input done type. The Channel uses this done value to determine when the upstream Channel finishes its emission. In ZIO 2.x, the ZSink is encoded as an input side of the Channel.

So we can say that streams are the output side and sinks are the input side of a Channel. What about the middle part? In ZIO 1.x, this used to be known as theZTransducer. Transducers were great for writing high-performance codecs (e.g. compression). They were really just a specialization of sinks. We have added transducers because things were not sufficiently efficient using sinks. If we were to write streaming codecs using sinks, they could be quite slow.

In ZIO 2.x, we removed the transducers, and they were deprecated. Instead, we realized we need something else for the middle part, and now it's called a Pipeline in ZIO 2.x. Pipelines accept a stream as input and return the transformed stream as output.

ZIO Streams 2.x

Pipelines are basically an abstraction for composing a bunch of operations together that can be later applied to a stream. For example, we can create a pipeline that reads bytes, decodes them to the UTF-8 and splits the lines, and then splits on commas. So this is a very simple CSV parsing pipeline which we can later use with another stream to pipe into.

ZIO Streams 1.xZIO Streams 2.x
ZChannel
ZStreamZStream (backed by ZChannel)
ZSinkZSink (backed by ZChannel)
ZTransducerZPipeline

ZIO Schedules

Schedule.jittered in ZIO 1 is equivalent to Schedule.jittered(0.0, 1.0). In ZIO this changed to Schedule.jittered(0.8, 1.2).

In ZIO 1 the average throughput of the updated schedule was twice the original schedule. In ZIO 2 the average thoughput of the updated schedule is the same as the orginal schedule.

ZIO Services

There are two significant changes in ZIO Services:

  1. All ZIO services moved to the zio package:

    ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
    zio.blocking.BlockingRemoved
    zio.clock.Clockzio.Clock
    zio.console.Consolezio.Console
    zio.random.Randomzio.Random
    zio.system.Systemzio.System

    And their live implementations renamed and moved to a new path:

    ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
    zio.Clock.Service.livezio.Clock.ClockLive
    zio.Console.Service.livezio.Console.ConsoleLive
    zio.System.Service.livezio.System.SystemLive
    zio.Random.Service.livezio.Random.RandomLive
  1. In ZIO 2.0 all type aliases like type Foo = Has[Foo.Service] were removed. So when accessing services instead of ZIO.service[Foo.Service] we now do ZIO.service[Foo].

Blocking Service

Since there is rarely a need to use a separate blocking thread pool, ZIO 2.0 created one global blocking pool, and removed the Blocking service from ZEnv and the built-in services.

All blocking operations were moved to the ZIO data type:

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
zio.blocking.Blocking.*ZIO.*

With some renaming stuffs:

ZIO 1.x (zio.blocking.Blocking.*)ZIO 2.x (ZIO.*)
effectBlockingZIO.attemptBlocking
effectBlockingCancelableZIO.attemptBlockingCancelable
effectBlockingIOZIO.attemptBlockingIO
effectBlockingInterruptZIO.attemptBlockingInterrupt

Now we have all the blocking operations under the ZIO data type as below:

  • ZIO.attemptBlocking
  • ZIO.attemptBlockingCancelable
  • ZIO.attemptBlockingIO
  • ZIO.attemptBlockingInterrupt
  • ZIO.blocking
  • ZIO.blockingExecutor

We can also provide a user-defined blocking executor in ZIO 2.x with the Runtime#withBlockingExecutor operator that constructs a new Runtime with the specified blocking executor.

Clock Service

There is a slight change in the Clock service; the return value of the currentDateTime, and localDateTime methods changed from IO to UIO, so they do not longer throw DateTimeException:

Method NameReturn Type (ZIO 1.x)Return Type (ZIO 2.x)
currentDateTimeIO[OffsetDateTime]UIO[OffsetDateTime]
localDateTimeIO[LocalDateTime]UIO[LocalDateTime]

In ZIO 2.0, without changing any API, the retrying, repetition, and scheduling logic moved into the Clock service.

Working with these three time-related APIs, always made us require Clock as our environment. So by moving these primitives into the Clock service, now we can directly call them via the Clock service. This change solves a common anti-pattern in ZIO 1.0, whereby a middleware that uses Clock via this retrying, repetition, or scheduling logic must provide the Clock layer on every method invocation:

trait Journal {
def append(log: String): ZIO[Any, Throwable, Unit]
}

trait Logger {
def log(line: String): UIO[Unit]
}

case class JournalLoggerLive(clock: Clock, journal: Journal) extends Logger {
override def log(line: String): UIO[Unit] = {
for {
current <- clock.currentDateTime
_ <- journal.append(s"$current--$line")
.retry(Schedule.exponential(2.seconds))
.provideEnvironment(ZEnvironment(clock))
.orDie
} yield ()
}
}

In ZIO 2.0, we can implement the logger service with a better ergonomic:

case class JournalLoggerLive(clock: Clock, journal: Journal) extends Logger {
override def log(line: String): UIO[Unit] = {
for {
current <- clock.currentDateTime
_ <- journal.append(s"$current--$line").retry(Schedule.exponential(2.seconds)).orDie
} yield ()
}
}

Note that the ZIO API didn't change, but the Clock trait became a bigger one, having more clock-related methods.

Console Service

Method names in the Console service were renamed to the more readable names:

ZIO 1.xZIO 2.x
putStrprint
putStrErrprintError
putStrLnprintLine
putStrLnErrprintLineError
getStrLnreadLine

Other New Features

Smart Constructors

Every data type in ZIO (ZIO, ZStream, etc.) has a variety of constructor functions that are designed to up convert some weaker type into the target type. Typically, these converter functions are named fromXYZ, e.g. ZIO.fromEither, ZStream.fromZIO, etc.

While these are precise, ZIO 2.0 provides the ZIO.from constructor which can intelligently choose the most likely constructor based on the input type. So instead of writing ZIO.fromEither(Right(3)) we can easily write ZIO.from(Right(3)). Let's try some of them:

import zio.stream.ZStream

ZIO.fromOption(Some("Ok!"))
ZIO.from(Some("Ok!"))

ZIO.fromEither(Right(3))
ZIO.from(Right(3))

ZIO.fromFiber(Fiber.succeed("Ok!"))
ZIO.from(Fiber.succeed("Ok!"))

ZStream.fromIterable(List(1,2,3))
ZStream.from(List(1,1,3))

ZStream.fromChunk(Chunk(1,2,3))
ZStream.from(Chunk(1,2,3))

ZStream.fromIterableZIO(ZIO.succeed(List(1,2,3)))
ZStream.from(ZIO.succeed(List(1,2,3)))

ZState

ZState is a new data type that ZIO 2.0 introduced:

sealed trait ZState[S] {
def get: UIO[S]
def set(s: S): UIO[Unit]
def update(f: S => S): UIO[Unit]
}

We can set, get, and update the state which is part of the ZIO environment using ZIO.setState, ZIO.getState, and ZIO.updateState operations:

import zio._

object ZStateExample extends zio.ZIOAppDefault {
final case class MyState(counter: Int)

val app = for {
_ <- ZIO.updateState[MyState](state => state.copy(counter = state.counter + 1))
count <- ZIO.getStateWith[MyState](_.counter)
_ <- Console.printLine(count)
} yield count

def run = app.provide(ZState.initial(MyState(0)))
}

Hub

Hub is a new concurrent data structure like Queue. While Queue solves the problem of distributing messages to multiple consumers, the Hub solves the problem of broadcasting the same message to multiple consumers.

Hub

Here is an example of broadcasting messages to multiple subscribers:

for {
hub <- Hub.bounded[String](requestedCapacity = 2)
s1 = hub.subscribe
s2 = hub.subscribe
_ <- ZIO.scoped {
s1.zip(s2).flatMap { case (left, right) =>
for {
_ <- hub.publish("Hello from a hub!")
_ <- left.take.flatMap(Console.printLine(_))
_ <- right.take.flatMap(Console.printLine(_))
} yield ()
}
}
} yield ()

Visit the Hub page to learn more about it.

ZIO Aspects

We introduced theZIOAspect which enables us to modify the existing ZIO effect with some additional aspects like debugging, tracing, retrying, and logging:

val myApp: ZIO[Random, Nothing, String] =
ZIO.ifZIO(
Random.nextIntBounded(10) @@ ZIOAspect.debug map (_ % 2 == 0)
)(onTrue = ZIO.succeed("Hello!"), onFalse = ZIO.succeed("Good Bye!")) @@
ZIOAspect.debug @@ ZIOAspect.logged("result")

// Sample Output:
// 2
// Hello!
// timestamp=2021-09-05T15:32:56.705901Z level=INFO thread=#2 message="result: Hello!" file=ZIOAspect.scala line=74 class=zio.ZIOAspect$$anon$4 method=apply

Debugging

ZIO 2.x introduces the debug that is useful when we want to print something to the console for debugging purposes without introducing additional environmental requirements or error types:

val myApp: ZIO[Random, Nothing, String] =
ZIO
.ifZIO(
Random.nextIntBounded(10) debug("random") map (_ % 2 == 0)
)(
onTrue = ZIO.succeed("Hello!"),
onFalse = ZIO.succeed("Good Bye!")
)
.debug("result")
// Sample Output
// random: 2
// result: Hello!

Logging

ZIO 2.x supports a lightweight built-in logging facade that standardized the interface to logging functionality. So it doesn't replace existing logging libraries, but also we can plug it into one of the existing logging backends.

We can easily log using the ZIO.log function:

ZIO.log("Application started!")

To log with a specific log-level, we can use the ZIO.logLevel combinator:

ZIO.logLevel(LogLevel.Warning) {
ZIO.log("The response time exceeded its threshold!")
}

Or we can use the following functions directly:

  • ZIO.logDebug
  • ZIO.logError
  • ZIO.logFatal
  • ZIO.logInfo
  • ZIO.logWarning
ZIO.logError("File does not exist: ~/var/www/favicon.ico")

It also supports logging spans:

ZIO.logSpan("myspan") {
ZIO.sleep(1.second) *> ZIO.log("The job is finished!")
}

ZIO Logging calculates the running duration of that span and includes that in the logging data corresponding to its span label.

Compile-time Execution Tracing

ZIO 1.x's execution trace is not as useful as it could be because it contains tracing information for internal ZIO operators that is not helpful to the user is understanding where in their code an error occurred.

Let's say we have the following application, in ZIO 1.x:

import zio._
import zio.console.Console

object TracingExample extends zio.App {

def doSomething(input: Int): ZIO[Console, String, Unit] =
for {
_ <- console.putStrLn(s"Do something $input").orDie // line number 8
_ <- ZIO.fail("Boom!")
_ <- console.putStrLn("Finished my job").orDie
} yield ()

def myApp: ZIO[Console, String, Unit] =
for {
_ <- console.putStrLn("Hello!").orDie
_ <- doSomething(5)
_ <- console.putStrLn("Bye Bye!").orDie
} yield ()

override def run(args: List[String]): URIO[zio.ZEnv, ExitCode] =
myApp.exitCode
}

The output would be something like this:

Hello!
Do something 5
Fiber failed.
A checked error was not handled.
Boom!

Fiber:Id(1634884059941,1) was supposed to continue to:
a future continuation at TracingExample$.myApp(TracingExample.scala:16)
a future continuation at zio.ZIO.exitCode(ZIO.scala:606)

Fiber:Id(1634884059941,1) execution trace:
at TracingExample$.doSomething(TracingExample.scala:8)
at zio.ZIO.orDieWith(ZIO.scala:1118)
at zio.ZIO.refineOrDieWith(ZIO.scala:1497)
at zio.console.package$Console$Service$.putStrLn(package.scala:44)
at zio.console.package$.putStrLn(package.scala:88)
at TracingExample$.myApp(TracingExample.scala:15)
at zio.ZIO.orDieWith(ZIO.scala:1118)
at zio.ZIO.refineOrDieWith(ZIO.scala:1497)
at zio.console.package$Console$Service$.putStrLn(package.scala:44)
at zio.console.package$.putStrLn(package.scala:88)

Fiber:Id(1634884059941,1) was spawned by:

Fiber:Id(1634884059516,0) was supposed to continue to:
a future continuation at zio.App.main(App.scala:59)
a future continuation at zio.App.main(App.scala:58)

Fiber:Id(1634884059516,0) ZIO Execution trace: <empty trace>

Fiber:Id(1634884059516,0) was spawned by: <empty trace>

The execution trace, is somehow at a good degree informative, but it doesn't lead us to the exact point where the failure happened. It's a little hard to see what is going here.

Let's rewrite the previous example in ZIO 2.0:

import zio._

object TracingExample extends ZIOAppDefault {

def doSomething(input: Int): ZIO[Any, String, Unit] =
for {
_ <- Console.printLine(s"Do something $input").orDie
_ <- ZIO.fail("Boom!") // line number 8
_ <- Console.printLine("Finished my job").orDie
} yield ()

def myApp: ZIO[Any, String, Unit] =
for {
_ <- Console.printLine("Hello!").orDie
_ <- doSomething(5) // line number 15
_ <- Console.printLine("Bye Bye!").orDie
} yield ()

def run = myApp
}

The output is more descriptive than in ZIO 1.x. It is similar to the Java stacktrace:

Hello!
Do something 5
timestamp=2021-12-19T08:25:09.372926403Z level=ERROR thread=#zio-fiber-1639902309 message="Exception in thread "zio-fiber-1639902309" java.lang.String: Boom!
at zio.examples.TracingExample.doSomething(TracingExample.scala:8)
at zio.examples.TracingExample.myApp(TracingExample.scala:15)"

As we see, the first line of execution trace, point to the exact location on the source code which causes the failure (ZIO.fail("Boom!")), which is line number 8.

In ZIO 2.x, the tracing is not optional, and unlike in ZIO 1.x, it is impossible to disable async tracing, either globally, or for specific effects. ZIO now always generates async stack traces, and it is impossible to turn this feature off, either at the global level or at the level of individual effects. Since nearly all users were running ZIO with tracing turned on, this change should have minimal impact on ZIO applications.

Another improvement about ZIO tracing is its performance. Tracing in ZIO 1.x slows down the application performance by two times. In ZIO 1.x, we wrap and unwrap every combinator at runtime to be able to trace the execution. While it is happening on the runtime, it takes a lot of allocations which all need to be garbage collected afterward. So it adds a huge amount of complexity at the runtime.

Some users often turn off the tracing when they need more speed, so they lose this ability to trace their application when something breaks.

In ZIO 2.x, we moved execution tracing from the run-time to the compile-time. This is done by capturing tracing information from source code at compile time using macros. So most tracing information is pre-allocated at startup and never needs garbage collected. As a result, we end up with much better performance in execution tracing.