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Version: 1.0.18


A ZIO[R, E, A] value is an immutable value that lazily describes a workflow or job. The workflow requires some environment R, and may fail with an error of type E, or succeed with a value of type A.

A value of type ZIO[R, E, A] is like an effectful version of the following function type:

R => Either[E, A]

This function, which requires an R, might produce either an E, representing failure, or an A, representing success. ZIO effects are not actually functions, of course, because they model complex effects, like asynchronous and concurrent effects.

ZIO effects model resourceful interaction with the outside world, including synchronous, asynchronous, concurrent, and parallel interaction.

ZIO effects use a fiber-based concurrency model, with built-in support for scheduling, fine-grained interruption, structured concurrency, and high scalability.

The ZIO[R, E, A] data type has three type parameters:

  • R - Environment Type. The effect requires an environment of type R. If this type parameter is Any, it means the effect has no requirements, because we can run the effect with any value (for example, the unit value ()).
  • E - Failure Type. The effect may fail with a value of type E. Some applications will use Throwable. If this type parameter is Nothing, it means the effect cannot fail, because there are no values of type Nothing.
  • A - Success Type. The effect may succeed with a value of type A. If this type parameter is Unit, it means the effect produces no useful information, while if it is Nothing, it means the effect runs forever (or until failure).

In the following example, the getStrLn function requires the Console service, it may fail with value of type IOException, or may succeed with a value of type String:

val getStrLn: ZIO[Console, IOException, String] =

ZIO values are immutable, and all ZIO functions produce new ZIO values, enabling ZIO to be reasoned about and used like any ordinary Scala immutable data structure.

ZIO values do not actually do anything; they are just values that model or describe effectful interactions.

ZIO can be interpreted by the ZIO runtime system into effectful interactions with the external world. Ideally, this occurs at a single time, in our application's main function. The App class provides this functionality automatically.

Table of Content


In this section we explore some of the common ways to create ZIO effects from values, from common Scala types, and from both synchronous and asynchronous side-effects. Here is the summary list of them:

Success Values

FunctionInput TypeOutput Type

Using the ZIO.succeed method, we can create an effect that succeeds with the specified value:

val s1 = ZIO.succeed(42)

We can also use methods in the companion objects of the ZIO type aliases:

val s2: Task[Int] = Task.succeed(42)

Note: succeed vs. effectTotal

The succeed is nothing different than effectTotal they are the same but for different purposes for clarity. The succeed method takes a by-name parameter to make sure that any accidental side effects from constructing the value can be properly managed by the ZIO Runtime. However, succeed is intended for values which do not have any side effects. If we know that our value does have side effects, we should consider using ZIO.effectTotal for clarity.

val now = ZIO.effectTotal(System.currentTimeMillis())

The value inside a successful effect constructed with ZIO.effectTotal will only be constructed if absolutely required.

Failure Values

FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
failEIO[E, Nothing]

Using the method, we can create an effect that models failure:

val f1 ="Uh oh!")

For the ZIO data type, there is no restriction on the error type. We may use strings, exceptions, or custom data types appropriate for our application.

Many applications will model failures with classes that extend Throwable or Exception:

val f2 = Exception("Uh oh!"))

Note that unlike the other effect companion objects, the UIO companion object does not have, because UIO values cannot fail.

From Values

ZIO contains several constructors which help us to convert various data types into the ZIO effect.


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
fromOptionOption[A]IO[Option[Nothing], A]
getOrFailUnitOption[A]IO[Unit, A]
getOrFailWithe:=> E, v:=> Option[A]IO[E, A]

An Option can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.fromOption:

val zoption: IO[Option[Nothing], Int] = ZIO.fromOption(Some(2))

The error type of the resulting effect is Option[Nothing], which provides no information on why the value is not there. We can change the Option[Nothing] into a more specific error type using ZIO#mapError:

val zoption2: IO[String, Int] = zoption.mapError(_ => "It wasn't there!")

We can also readily compose it with other operators while preserving the optional nature of the result (similar to an OptionT)

val maybeId: IO[Option[Nothing], String] = ZIO.fromOption(Some("abc123"))
def getUser(userId: String): IO[Throwable, Option[User]] = ???
def getTeam(teamId: String): IO[Throwable, Team] = ???

val result: IO[Throwable, Option[(User, Team)]] = (for {
id <- maybeId
user <- getUser(id).some
team <- getTeam(user.teamId).asSomeError
} yield (user, team)).optional


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
fromEitherEither[E, A]IO[E, A]
leftAUIO[Either[A, Nothing]]
rightAUIO[Either[Nothing, B]]

An Either can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.fromEither:

val zeither = ZIO.fromEither(Right("Success!"))

The error type of the resulting effect will be whatever type the Left case has, while the success type will be whatever type the Right case has.


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type

A Try value can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.fromTry:

import scala.util.Try

val ztry = ZIO.fromTry(Try(42 / 0))

The error type of the resulting effect will always be Throwable, because Try can only fail with values of type Throwable.


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
fromFunctionR => AURIO[R, A]
fromFunctionMR => IO[E, A]ZIO[R, E, A]

A function A => B can be converted into a ZIO effect with ZIO.fromFunction:

val zfun: URIO[Int, Int] =
ZIO.fromFunction((i: Int) => i * i)

The environment type of the effect is A (the input type of the function), because in order to run the effect, it must be supplied with a value of this type.


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
fromFutureExecutionContext => scala.concurrent.Future[A]Task[A]
fromFutureJavajava.util.concurrent.Future[A]RIO[Blocking, A]
fromFunctionFutureR => scala.concurrent.Future[A]RIO[R, A]
fromFutureInterruptExecutionContext => scala.concurrent.Future[A]Task[A]

A Future can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.fromFuture:

import scala.concurrent.Future

lazy val future = Future.successful("Hello!")

val zfuture: Task[String] =
ZIO.fromFuture { implicit ec => => "Goodbye!")

The function passed to fromFuture is passed an ExecutionContext, which allows ZIO to manage where the Future runs (of course, we can ignore this ExecutionContext).

The error type of the resulting effect will always be Throwable, because Future can only fail with values of type Throwable.


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type

A Promise can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.fromPromiseScala:

val func: String => String = s => s.toUpperCase
for {
promise <- ZIO.succeed(scala.concurrent.Promise[String]())
_ <- ZIO.effect {
Try(func("hello world from future")) match {
case Success(value) => promise.success(value)
case Failure(exception) => promise.failure(exception)
value <- ZIO.fromPromiseScala(promise)
_ <- putStrLn(s"Hello World in UpperCase: $value")
} yield ()


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
fromFiberFiber[E, A]IO[E, A]
fromFiberMIO[E, Fiber[E, A]]IO[E, A]

A Fiber can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.fromFiber:

val io: IO[Nothing, String] = ZIO.fromFiber(Fiber.succeed("Hello From Fiber!"))

From Side-Effects

ZIO can convert both synchronous and asynchronous side-effects into ZIO effects (pure values).

These functions can be used to wrap procedural code, allowing us to seamlessly use all features of ZIO with legacy Scala and Java code, as well as third-party libraries.


FunctionInput TypeOutput TypeNote
effectTotalAUIO[A]Imports a total synchronous effect
effectATask[A]Imports a (partial) synchronous side-effect

A synchronous side-effect can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.effect:


val getStrLine: Task[String] =

The error type of the resulting effect will always be Throwable, because side-effects may throw exceptions with any value of type Throwable.

If a given side-effect is known to not throw any exceptions, then the side-effect can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.effectTotal:

def putStrLine(line: String): UIO[Unit] =

val effectTotalTask: UIO[Long] =

We should be careful when using ZIO.effectTotal—when in doubt about whether or not a side-effect is total, prefer ZIO.effect to convert the effect.

If this is too broad, the refineOrDie method of ZIO may be used to retain only certain types of exceptions, and to die on any other types of exceptions:


val getStrLn2: IO[IOException, String] =
Blocking Synchronous Side-Effects
FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
blockingZIO[R, E, A]ZIO[R, E, A]
effectBlockingARIO[Blocking, A]
effectBlockingCancelableeffect: => A, cancel: UIO[Unit]RIO[Blocking, A]
effectBlockingInterruptARIO[Blocking, A]
effectBlockingIOAZIO[Blocking, IOException, A]

Some side-effects use blocking IO or otherwise put a thread into a waiting state. If not carefully managed, these side-effects can deplete threads from our application's main thread pool, resulting in work starvation.

ZIO provides the zio.blocking package, which can be used to safely convert such blocking side-effects into ZIO effects.

A blocking side-effect can be converted directly into a ZIO effect blocking with the effectBlocking method:

import zio.blocking._

val sleeping =

The resulting effect will be executed on a separate thread pool designed specifically for blocking effects.

Blocking side-effects can be interrupted by invoking Thread.interrupt using the effectBlockingInterrupt method.

Some blocking side-effects can only be interrupted by invoking a cancellation effect. We can convert these side-effects using the effectBlockingCancelable method:

import zio.UIO

def accept(l: ServerSocket) =

If a side-effect has already been converted into a ZIO effect, then instead of effectBlocking, the blocking method can be used to ensure the effect will be executed on the blocking thread pool:

import{ Codec, Source }

def download(url: String) =
Task.effect {

def safeDownload(url: String) =


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
effectAsync(ZIO[R, E, A] => Unit) => AnyZIO[R, E, A]
effectAsyncM(ZIO[R, E, A] => Unit) => ZIO[R, E, Any]ZIO[R, E, A]
effectAsyncMaybe(ZIO[R, E, A] => Unit) => Option[ZIO[R, E, A]]ZIO[R, E, A]
effectAsyncInterrupt(ZIO[R, E, A] => Unit) => Either[Canceler[R], ZIO[R, E, A]]ZIO[R, E, A]

An asynchronous side-effect with a callback-based API can be converted into a ZIO effect using ZIO.effectAsync:

object legacy {
def login(
onSuccess: User => Unit,
onFailure: AuthError => Unit): Unit = ???

val login: IO[AuthError, User] =
IO.effectAsync[AuthError, User] { callback =>
user => callback(IO.succeed(user)),
err => callback(

Asynchronous ZIO effects are much easier to use than callback-based APIs, and they benefit from ZIO features like interruption, resource-safety, and superior error handling.

Creating Suspended Effects

FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
effectSuspendRIO[R, A]RIO[R, A]
effectSuspendTotalZIO[R, E, A]ZIO[R, E, A]
effectSuspendTotalWith(Platform, Fiber.Id) => ZIO[R, E, A]ZIO[R, E, A]
effectSuspendWith(Platform, Fiber.Id) => RIO[R, A]RIO[R, A]

A RIO[R, A] effect can be suspended using effectSuspend function:

val suspendedEffect: RIO[Any, ZIO[Console, IOException, Unit]] =
ZIO.effectSuspend(ZIO.effect(putStrLn("Suspended Hello World!")))



We can change an IO[E, A] to an IO[E, B] by calling the map method with a function A => B. This lets us transform values produced by actions into other values.

import zio.{ UIO, IO }

val mappedValue: UIO[Int] = IO.succeed(21).map(_ * 2)


We can transform an IO[E, A] into an IO[E2, A] by calling the mapError method with a function E => E2. This lets us transform the failure values of effects:

val mappedError: IO[Exception, String] ="No no!").mapError(msg => new Exception(msg))


Note that mapping over an effect's success or error channel does not change the success or failure of the effect, in the same way that mapping over an Either does not change whether the Either is Left or Right.


mapEffect returns an effect whose success is mapped by the specified side-effecting f function, translating any thrown exceptions into typed failed effects.

Converting literal "Five" String to Int by calling toInt is a side effecting because it will throws NumberFormatException exception:

val task: RIO[Any, Int] = ZIO.succeed("hello").mapEffect(_.toInt)

mapEffect converts an unchecked exception to a checked one by returning the RIO effect.


We can execute two actions in sequence with the flatMap method. The second action may depend on the value produced by the first action.

val chainedActionsValue: UIO[List[Int]] = IO.succeed(List(1, 2, 3)).flatMap { list =>
IO.succeed( + 1))

If the first effect fails, the callback passed to flatMap will never be invoked, and the composed effect returned by flatMap will also fail.

In any chain of effects, the first failure will short-circuit the whole chain, just like throwing an exception will prematurely exit a sequence of statements.

Because the ZIO data type supports both flatMap and map, we can use Scala's for comprehensions to build sequential effects:

val program = 
for {
_ <- putStrLn("Hello! What is your name?")
name <- getStrLn
_ <- putStrLn(s"Hello, ${name}, welcome to ZIO!")
} yield ()

For comprehensions provide a more procedural syntax for composing chains of effects.


We can combine two effects into a single effect with the zip method. The resulting effect succeeds with a tuple that contains the success values of both effects:

val zipped: UIO[(String, Int)] = 

Note that zip operates sequentially: the effect on the left side is executed before the effect on the right side.

In any zip operation, if either the left or right-hand sides fail, then the composed effect will fail, because both values are required to construct the tuple.

zipLeft and zipRight

Sometimes, when the success value of an effect is not useful (or example, it is Unit), it can be more convenient to use the zipLeft or zipRight functions, which first perform a zip, and then map over the tuple to discard one side or the other:

val zipRight1 = 
putStrLn("What is your name?").zipRight(getStrLn)

The zipRight and zipLeft functions have symbolic aliases, known as *> and <*, respectively. Some developers find these operators easier to read:

val zipRight2 = 
putStrLn("What is your name?") *>


ZIO provides many operations for performing effects in parallel. These methods are all named with a Par suffix that helps us identify opportunities to parallelize our code.

For example, the ordinary ZIO#zip method zips two effects together, sequentially. But there is also a ZIO#zipPar method, which zips two effects together in parallel.

The following table summarizes some of the sequential operations and their corresponding parallel versions:

Zips two effects into oneZIO#zipZIO#zipPar
Zips two effects into oneZIO#zipWithZIO#zipWithPar
Collects from many effectsZIO.collectAllZIO.collectAllPar
Effectfully loop over valuesZIO.foreachZIO.foreachPar
Reduces many valuesZIO.reduceAllZIO.reduceAllPar
Merges many valuesZIO.mergeAllZIO.mergeAllPar

For all the parallel operations, if one effect fails, then others will be interrupted, to minimize unnecessary computation.

If the fail-fast behavior is not desired, potentially failing effects can be first converted into infallible effects using the ZIO#either or ZIO#option methods.


ZIO lets us race multiple effects in parallel, returning the first successful result:

for {
winner <- IO.succeed("Hello").race(IO.succeed("Goodbye"))
} yield winner

If we want the first success or failure, rather than the first success, then we can use left.either race right.either, for any effects left and right.


ZIO lets us timeout any effect using the ZIO#timeout method, which returns a new effect that succeeds with an Option. A value of None indicates the timeout elapsed before the effect completed.

import zio.duration._


If an effect times out, then instead of continuing to execute in the background, it will be interrupted so no resources will be wasted.

Error Management


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
ZIO#eitherURIO[R, Either[E, A]]
ZIO.absolveZIO[R, E, Either[E, A]]ZIO[R, E, A]

We can surface failures with ZIO#either, which takes an ZIO[R, E, A] and produces an ZIO[R, Nothing, Either[E, A]].

val zeither: UIO[Either[String, Int]] ="Uh oh!").either

We can submerge failures with ZIO.absolve, which is the opposite of either and turns an ZIO[R, Nothing, Either[E, A]] into a ZIO[R, E, A]:

def sqrt(io: UIO[Double]): IO[String, Double] =
ZIO.absolve( =>
if (value < 0.0) Left("Value must be >= 0.0")
else Right(Math.sqrt(value))


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
ZIO#catchAllE => ZIO[R1, E2, A1]ZIO[R1, E2, A1]
ZIO#catchAllCauseCause[E] => ZIO[R1, E2, A1]ZIO[R1, E2, A1]
ZIO#catchAllDefectThrowable => ZIO[R1, E1, A1]ZIO[R1, E1, A1]
ZIO#catchAllTrace((E, Option[ZTrace])) => ZIO[R1, E2, A1]ZIO[R1, E2, A1]
ZIO#catchSomePartialFunction[E, ZIO[R1, E1, A1]]ZIO[R1, E1, A1]
ZIO#catchSomeCausePartialFunction[Cause[E], ZIO[R1, E1, A1]]ZIO[R1, E1, A1]
ZIO#catchSomeDefectPartialFunction[Throwable, ZIO[R1, E1, A1]]ZIO[R1, E1, A1]
ZIO#catchSomeTracePartialFunction[(E, Option[ZTrace]), ZIO[R1, E1, A1]]ZIO[R1, E1, A1]

Catching All Errors

If we want to catch and recover from all types of errors and effectfully attempt recovery, we can use the catchAll method:

val z: IO[IOException, Array[Byte]] = 
readFile("primary.json").catchAll(_ =>

In the callback passed to catchAll, we may return an effect with a different error type (or perhaps Nothing), which will be reflected in the type of effect returned by catchAll.

Catching Some Errors

If we want to catch and recover from only some types of exceptions and effectfully attempt recovery, we can use the catchSome method:

val data: IO[IOException, Array[Byte]] = 
readFile("").catchSome {
case _ : FileNotFoundException =>

Unlike catchAll, catchSome cannot reduce or eliminate the error type, although it can widen the error type to a broader class of errors.


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
orElseZIO[R1, E2, A1]ZIO[R1, E2, A1]
orElseEitherZIO[R1, E2, B]ZIO[R1, E2, Either[A, B]]
orElseFailE1ZIO[R, E1, A]
orElseOptionalZIO[R1, Option[E1], A1]ZIO[R1, Option[E1], A1]
orElseSucceedA1URIO[R, A1]

We can try one effect, or, if it fails, try another effect, with the orElse combinator:

val primaryOrBackupData: IO[IOException, Array[Byte]] = 


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
foldfailure: E => B, success: A => BURIO[R, B]
foldCausefailure: Cause[E] => B, success: A => BURIO[R, B]
foldMfailure: E => ZIO[R1, E2, B], success: A => ZIO[R1, E2, B]ZIO[R1, E2, B]
foldCauseMfailure: Cause[E] => ZIO[R1, E2, B], success: A => ZIO[R1, E2, B]ZIO[R1, E2, B]
foldTraceMfailure: ((E, Option[ZTrace])) => ZIO[R1, E2, B], success: A => ZIO[R1, E2, B]ZIO[R1, E2, B]

Scala's Option and Either data types have fold, which let us handle both failure and success at the same time. In a similar fashion, ZIO effects also have several methods that allow us to handle both failure and success.

The first fold method, fold, lets us non-effectfully handle both failure and success, by supplying a non-effectful handler for each case:

lazy val DefaultData: Array[Byte] = Array(0, 0)

val primaryOrDefaultData: UIO[Array[Byte]] =
_ => DefaultData,
data => data)

The second fold method, foldM, lets us effectfully handle both failure and success, by supplying an effectful (but still pure) handler for each case:

val primaryOrSecondaryData: IO[IOException, Array[Byte]] = 
_ => readFile(""),
data => ZIO.succeed(data))

Nearly all error handling methods are defined in terms of foldM, because it is both powerful and fast.

In the following example, foldM is used to handle both failure and success of the readUrls method:

val urls: UIO[Content] =
error => IO.succeed(NoContent(error)),
success => fetchContent(success)


FunctionInput TypeOutput Type
retrySchedule[R1, E, S]ZIO[R1 with Clock, E, A]
retryNn: IntZIO[R, E, A]
retryOrElsepolicy: Schedule[R1, E, S], orElse: (E, S) => ZIO[R1, E1, A1]ZIO[R1 with Clock, E1, A1]
retryOrElseEitherschedule: Schedule[R1, E, Out], orElse: (E, Out) => ZIO[R1, E1, B]ZIO[R1 with Clock, E1, Either[B, A]]
retryUntilE => BooleanZIO[R, E, A]
retryUntilEqualsE1ZIO[R, E1, A]
retryUntilME => URIO[R1, Boolean]ZIO[R1, E, A]
retryWhileE => BooleanZIO[R, E, A]
retryWhileEqualsE1ZIO[R, E1, A]
retryWhileME => URIO[R1, Boolean]ZIO[R1, E, A]

When we are building applications we want to be resilient in the face of a transient failure. This is where we need to retry to overcome these failures.

There are a number of useful methods on the ZIO data type for retrying failed effects.

The most basic of these is ZIO#retry, which takes a Schedule and returns a new effect that will retry the first effect if it fails, according to the specified policy:

import zio.clock._

val retriedOpenFile: ZIO[Clock, IOException, Array[Byte]] =

The next most powerful function is ZIO#retryOrElse, which allows specification of a fallback to use, if the effect does not succeed with the specified policy:

(_, _:Long) => ZIO.succeed(DefaultData)

The final method, ZIO#retryOrElseEither, allows returning a different type for the fallback.

Resource Management

ZIO's resource management features work across synchronous, asynchronous, concurrent, and other effect types, and provide strong guarantees even in the presence of failure, interruption, or defects in the application.


Scala has a try / finally construct which helps us to make sure we don't leak resources because no matter what happens in the try, the finally block will be executed. So we can open files in the try block, and then we can close them in the finally block, and that gives us the guarantee that we will not leak resources.

Asynchronous Try / Finally

The problem with the try / finally construct is that it only applies with synchronous code, they don't work for asynchronous code. ZIO gives us a method called ensuring that works with either synchronous or asynchronous actions. So we have a functional try/finally but across the async region of our code, also our finalizer could have async regions.

Like try / finally, the ensuring operation guarantees that if an effect begins executing and then terminates (for whatever reason), then the finalizer will begin executing:

val finalizer = 
// finalizer: UIO[Unit] = zio.ZIO$EffectTotal@438627be

val finalized: IO[String, Unit] ="Failed!").ensuring(finalizer)
// finalized: IO[String, Unit] = zio.ZIO$CheckInterrupt@54924fe9

The finalizer is not allowed to fail, which means that it must handle any errors internally.

Like try / finally, finalizers can be nested, and the failure of any inner finalizer will not affect outer finalizers. Nested finalizers will be executed in reverse order, and linearly (not in parallel).

Unlike try / finally, ensuring works across all types of effects, including asynchronous and concurrent effects.

Here is another example of ensuring that our clean-up action called before our effect is done:

import zio.Task
var i: Int = 0
val action: Task[String] =
Task.effectTotal(i += 1) *> Throwable("Boom!"))
val cleanupAction: UIO[Unit] = UIO.effectTotal(i -= 1)
val composite = action.ensuring(cleanupAction)

_Note: Finalizers offer very powerful guarantees, but they are low-level, and should generally not be used for releasing resources. For higher-level logic built on ensuring, see ZIO#bracket on the bracket section.

Unstoppable Finalizers

In Scala when we nest try / finally finalizers, they cannot be stopped. If we have nested finalizers and one of them fails for some sort of catastrophic reason the ones on the outside will still be run and in the correct order.

try {
try {
try {
} finally f1
} finally f2
} finally f3

Also in ZIO like try / finally, the finalizers are unstoppable. This means if we have a buggy finalizer, and it is going to leak some resources that unfortunately happens, we will leak the minimum amount of resources because all other finalizers will be run in the correct order.

val io = ???


In Scala the try / finally is often used to manage resources. A common use for try / finally is safely acquiring and releasing resources, such as new socket connections or opened files:

val handle = openFile(name)

try {
} finally closeFile(handle)

ZIO encapsulates this common pattern with ZIO#bracket, which allows us to specify an acquire effect, which acquires a resource; a release effect, which releases it; and a use effect, which uses the resource. Bracket lets us open a file and close the file and no matter what happens when we are using that resource.

The release action is guaranteed to be executed by the runtime system, even if the utilize action throws an exception or the executing fiber is interrupted.

Brackets are a built-in primitive that let us safely acquire and release resources. They are used for a similar purpose as try/catch/finally, only brackets work with synchronous and asynchronous actions, work seamlessly with fiber interruption, and are built on a different error model that ensures no errors are ever swallowed.

Brackets consist of an acquire action, a utilize action (which uses the acquired resource), and a release action.

import zio.{ UIO, IO }
val groupedFileData: IO[IOException, Unit] = openFile("data.json").bracket(closeFile(_)) { file =>
for {
data <- decodeData(file)
grouped <- groupData(data)
} yield grouped

Brackets have compositional semantics, so if a bracket is nested inside another bracket, and the outer bracket acquires a resource, then the outer bracket's release will always be called, even if, for example, the inner bracket's release fails.

Let's look at a full working example on using brackets:

import zio.{ ExitCode, Task, UIO }
import{ File, FileInputStream }
import java.nio.charset.StandardCharsets

object Main extends App {

// run my bracket
def run(args: List[String]) =

def closeStream(is: FileInputStream) =

// helper method to work around in Java 8
def readAll(fis: FileInputStream, len: Long): Array[Byte] = {
val content: Array[Byte] = Array.ofDim(len.toInt)

def convertBytes(is: FileInputStream, len: Long) =
Task.effect(println(new String(readAll(is, len), StandardCharsets.UTF_8))) // Java 8
//Task.effect(println(new String(is.readAllBytes(), StandardCharsets.UTF_8))) // Java 11+

// mybracket is just a value. Won't execute anything here until interpreted
val mybracket: Task[Unit] = for {
file <- Task(new File("/tmp/hello"))
len = file.length
string <- Task(new FileInputStream(file)).bracket(closeStream)(convertBytes(_, len))
} yield string

Unswallowed Exceptions

The Java and Scala error models are broken. Because if we have the right combinations of try/finally/catches we can actually throw many exceptions, and then we are only able to catch one of them. All the other ones are lost. They are swallowed into a black hole, and also the one that we catch is the wrong one. It is not the primary cause of the failure.

In the following example, we are going to show this behavior:

 try {
try throw new Error("e1")
finally throw new Error("e2")
} catch {
case e: Error => println(e)

The above program just prints the e2, which is lossy and, also is not the primary cause of failure.

But in the ZIO version, all the errors will still be reported. So even though we are only able to catch one error, the other ones will be reported which we have full control over them. They don't get lost.

Let's write a ZIO version:"e1")
.ensuring(IO.effectTotal(throw new Exception("e2")))
.catchAll {
case "e1" => putStrLn("e1")
case "e2" => putStrLn("e2")