Skip to main content
Version: ZIO 1.x


Managed[E, A] is a type alias for ZManaged[Any, E, A], which represents a managed resource that has no requirements, and may fail with an E, or succeed with an A.

The Managed type alias is defined as follows:

type Managed[+E, +A] = ZManaged[Any, E, A]

Managed is a data structure that encapsulates the acquisition and the release of a resource, which may be used by invoking the use method of the resource. The resource will be automatically acquired before the resource is used, and automatically released after the resource is used.

Resources do not survive the scope of use, meaning that if you attempt to capture the resource, leak it from use, and then use it after the resource has been consumed, the resource will not be valid anymore and may fail with some checked error, as per the type of the functions provided by the resource.

import zio._
def doSomething(queue: Queue[Int]): UIO[Unit] = IO.unit

val managedResource = Managed.make(Queue.unbounded[Int])(_.shutdown)
val usedResource: UIO[Unit] = managedResource.use { queue => doSomething(queue) }

In this example, the queue will be created when use is called, and shutdown will be called when doSomething completes.

Creating a Managed

As shown in the previous example, a Managed can be created by passing an acquire function and a release function.

It can also be created from an effect. In this case the release function will do nothing.

import zio._
def acquire: IO[Throwable, Int] = IO.effect(???)

val managedFromEffect: Managed[Throwable, Int] = Managed.fromEffect(acquire)

You can create a Managed from a pure value as well.

import zio._
val managedFromValue: Managed[Nothing, Int] = Managed.succeed(3)

Managed with ZIO environment

Managed[E, A] is actually an alias for ZManaged[Any, E, A]. If you'd like your acquire, release or use functions to require an environment R, just use ZManaged instead of Managed.

import zio._
import zio.console._

val zManagedResource: ZManaged[Console, Nothing, Unit] = ZManaged.make(console.putStrLn("acquiring").orDie)(_ => console.putStrLn("releasing").orDie)
val zUsedResource: URIO[Console, Unit] = zManagedResource.use { _ => console.putStrLn("running").orDie }

Combining Managed

It is possible to combine multiple Managed using flatMap to obtain a single Managed that will acquire and release all the resources.

import zio._
val managedQueue: Managed[Nothing, Queue[Int]] = Managed.make(Queue.unbounded[Int])(_.shutdown)
val managedFile: Managed[IOException, File] = Managed.make(openFile("data.json"))(closeFile)

val combined: Managed[IOException, (Queue[Int], File)] = for {
queue <- managedQueue
file <- managedFile
} yield (queue, file)

val usedCombinedRes: IO[IOException, Unit] = combined.use { case (queue, file) => doSomething(queue, file) }