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Version: ZIO 2.x


A ZManaged[R, E, A] is a managed resource, that requires an R, and may fail with an E value, or succeed with an A.

ZManaged is a data structure that encapsulates the acquisition and the release of a resource, which may be used by invoking the use method of the resource. The resource will be automatically acquired before the resource is used and automatically released after the resource is used.

Resources do not survive the scope of use, meaning that if we attempt to capture the resource, leak it from use, and then use it after the resource has been consumed, the resource will not be valid anymore and may fail with some checked error, as per the type of the functions provided by the resource.


In this section, we explore some common ways to create managed resources.


ZManaged has a make constructor which requires acquire and release actions:

val managed = ZManaged.acquireReleaseWith(acquire)(release)

In the following example, we have a managed resource which requires Console as an environment to print the first line of a given file. The BufferedReader will be acquired before printing the first line and automatically will be released after using BufferedReader:

import zio.Console._def printFirstLine(file: String): ZIO[Has[Console], Throwable, Unit] = {  def acquire(file: String) = ZIO.attempt(new BufferedReader(new FileReader(file)))  def release(reader: BufferedReader) = ZIO.succeed(reader.close())
  ZManaged.acquireReleaseWith(acquire(file))(release).use { reader =>    printLine(reader.readLine())   }}

If we need to have different logic in release action based on exit status of acquire action, we can use ZManaged.makeExit constructor:

trait ZManaged[-R, +E, +A] {  def makeExit[R, R1 <: R, E, A](    acquire: ZIO[R, E, A]  )(release: (A, Exit[Any, Any]) => ZIO[R1, Nothing, Any]): ZManaged[R1, E, A]}

Note that like ZManaged.acquireReleaseWith, both of acquire and release actions are uninterruptible in ZManaged.acquireReleaseExitWith.

Lifting a pure value#

We can lift pure values to ZManaged with ZIO.succeed method:

val managedString = ZManaged.succeed("Hello, World!")val managedBoolean = ZManaged.succeed(true)

Lifting a ZIO effect#

Every ZIO effect can be lifted to ZManaged with ZManaged.fromEffect or ZIO#toZManaged_ operations:

val managedHello = ZManaged.fromZIO(printLine("Hello, World!"))val managedHello_ = printLine("Hello, World!").toManaged

This is useful when we want to combine ZManaged effects with ZIO effects. Assume during creation of managed resource, we need to log some information, we can lift a ZIO effect to ZManaged world:

def userRepository: ZManaged[Has[Console], Throwable, UserRepository] = for {  cfg <- dbConfig.toManaged  _ <- printLine("Read database config").toManaged  _ <- initializeDb(cfg).toManaged  _ <- printLine("Database initialized").toManaged  xa <- makeTransactor(cfg)  _ <- printLine("Created new blocking transactor").toManaged} yield new UserRepository(xa)

Making from AutoClosable Resources#

If the resource implemented the AutoClosable interface, we can easily make a ZManaged from it by using ZManaged.fromAutoClosable constructor:

ZManaged.fromAutoCloseable(ZIO.attempt(new FileInputStream("file.txt")))// res1: ZManaged[Any, Throwable, FileInputStream] = zio.ZManaged$$anon$2@73d6240cZManaged.fromAutoCloseable(ZIO.attempt(fromResource("file.txt")))// res2: ZManaged[Any, Throwable,] = zio.ZManaged$$anon$2@33c4c398ZManaged.fromAutoCloseable(ZIO.attempt(fromFile("file.txt")))// res3: ZManaged[Any, Throwable,] = zio.ZManaged$$anon$2@6e73598c

Making Interruptible Acquires#

By default, when we create a ZManaged via ZManaged.acquireReleaseWith constructor, the acquire and release actions are uninterruptible. But what if we want to make the acquire action interruptible? The acquireReleaseInterruptibleWith constructor does that for us:

trait ZManaged[-R, +E, +A] {  def acquireReleaseInterruptibleWith[R, E, A](    acquire: ZIO[R, E, A]  )(release: A => URIO[R, Any]): ZManaged[R, E, A]}

Making ZManaged via this constructor makes the acquire action interruptible, the release action remains uninterruptible.

If we want to decide what to do in the release action based on how the acquire action is completed, whether by success, failure, or interruption; we can use the fromReservation constructor. The type of release action is Exit[Any, Any] => URIO[R, Any] which provides us the Exit status of the acquire action, so we can decide what to do based on the exit status of acquire action:

trait ZManaged[-R, +E, +A] {  def fromReservation[R, E, A](reservation: ZIO[R, E, Reservation[R, E, A]]): ZManaged[R, E, A]}

Reservation data type is defined as follows:

final case class Reservation[-R, +E, +A](acquire: ZIO[R, E, A], release: Exit[Any, Any] => URIO[R, Any])



Inside the use block, we can use the managed resource and return a new value. The use method converts a managed resource from ZManaged world to ZIO world:

def firstLine(file: String): ZIO[Has[Console], Throwable, Unit] =  ZManaged.fromAutoCloseable(ZIO.attempt(fromFile(file))).use { reader =>    printLine(reader.bufferedReader().readLine())  }


If our managed resource could be valid after releasing resources, we can convert that ZManaged to ZIO effect by calling ZManaged#useNow.

val hello: UIO[String] = ZManaged.succeed("Hello, World!").useNow

This is useful when we have composed some ZManaged with some ZIO effects, and the result can be outlived outside the use block:

def is(file: String): Task[FileInputStream]  = Task.attempt(???)def os(file: String): Task[FileOutputStream] = Task.attempt(???)
def close(resource: Closeable): UIO[Unit] = Task.succeed(???)def copy(from: FileInputStream, to: FileOutputStream): Task[Unit] = ???
def transfer(from: String, to: String): ZIO[Any, Throwable, Unit] = {  val resource: ZManaged[Any, Throwable, Unit] = for {    from <- ZManaged.acquireReleaseWith(is(from))(close)    to   <- ZManaged.acquireReleaseWith(os(to))(close)    _    <- copy(from, to).toManaged  } yield ()  resource.useNow}


Be careful, don’t call the useNow method on a managed resource that isn’t valid after its release actions. For example, running useNow on ZManaged.fromAutoCloseable(ZIO.attempt(fromFile("file.txt"))) doesn’t make sense, because after releasing a file, we haven’t any handle to that file.


Assume we are going to make a managed resource long-lived. The ZManaged#useForever does that for us, it converts a ZManaged effect to a ZIO effect which will remain forever running.


ZManaged like the ZIO effect has almost all combinators that we introduced on the ZIO page. We can use them to create more complicated ZManaged ones.

There is also some combinators which specific for ZManaged:

  1. ensuringFirst— This combinator adds a ZIO effect as a finalizer to an existing ZManaged effect. This finalizer will be executed before the existing finalizers:
trait ZManaged[-R, +E, +A] {  def ensuringFirst[R1 <: R](f: ZIO[R1, Nothing, Any]): ZManaged[R1, E, A]}
  1. onExitFirst— Like ensuringFirst, but it has access to the ZManaged’s result:
trait ZManaged[-R, +E, +A] {  def onExitFirst[R1 <: R](cleanup: Exit[E, A] => ZIO[R1, Nothing, Any]): ZManaged[R1, E, A]}
  1. withEarlyRelease— It will produce another ZManaged which provides a canceler that can be used to eagerly execute the finalizer of this ZManaged:
trait ZManaged[-R, +E, +A] {  def withEarlyRelease: ZManaged[R, E, (UIO[Any], A)]}
  1. withEarlyReleaseExit— Like withEarlyRelease, but allows us to specify an exit value in the event of early release:
trait ZManaged[-R, +E, +A] {  def withEarlyReleaseExit(e: Exit[Any, Any]): ZManaged[R, E, (UIO[Any], A)]}